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37 publications mentioning zma-MIR172c

Open access articles that are associated with the species Zea mays and mention the gene name MIR172c. Click the [+] symbols to view sentences that include the gene name, or the word cloud on the right for a summary.

1
[+] score: 335
We speculate that the additional floret defects observed in plants over -expressing miR172b are due to repression of Os03g60430 by over-expressed miR172 because both SNB and Os03g60430 are relatively highly expressed in developing panicles (Figure 2A, B), they have similar mRNA expression patterns determined by in situ hybridization [24, 29], and Os03g60430 is down-regulated by elevated levels of miR172 in 0.5-4 cm long panicles (Figure 7B). [score:12]
To determine where miR172 and its target transcripts are expressed during rice development, we analyzed miR172 expression by RNA gel blot and expression of the AP2-like target mRNAs by qRT-PCR in various tissues. [score:12]
However, expression of SNB was not inversely correlated with expression of miR172 in wild-type, and over -expressing miR172b did not reduce the expression levels of SNB in <1 cm long panicles where development of spikelets and florets is occurring, instead SNB transcript abundance increased significantly. [score:10]
We characterized the expression of miR172 and its putative AP2-like target genes in rice and did not find inversely correlated expression patterns although at least three of the AP2-like mRNAs were found to be cleavage targets of miR172, suggesting roles of miR172 via transcriptional and translation repression with the latter as a possible predominant mode of action of miR172 in rice. [score:9]
In maize, expression of GLOSSY15 (GL15), an AP2-like gene with an mRNA targeted for cleavage by miR172, is gradually down-regulated during the early stages of vegetative development due to a progressive increase of miR172 levels, promoting the juvenile-to-adult transition [17]. [score:9]
miR172 -mediated cleavage of mRNAs of these target genes has been detected [21], but there is strong evidence to suggest that the primary mode of repression of these target genes by miR172 is translational inhibition [13, 14]. [score:9]
Expression of SNB and Os03g60430 showed an inverse correlation with the abundance of miR172 in two-leaf shoots, leaf four and leaf ten, but generally the expression of miR172 was not inversely correlated with the expression of its targets in the tissues analyzed (Figure 2A, B, C). [score:9]
Expression analysis of the mature miR172 sequences and their precursors in different tissues and developmental stages might help determine where and when each miR172 member is likely to be expressed; however, distinguishing expression of individual miR172 family members using hybridization and PCR -based approaches is difficult because the four miRNAs have few sequence differences. [score:8]
The unchanged or increased abundances of miR172 target mRNAs in the miR172b over -expression plants is reminiscent of observations made in Arabidopsis [13, 21] where there is evidence that miR172 acts to repress translation and for transcription of the AP2-like genes to be under negative feedback regulation via their protein products. [score:8]
Expression of miR172 was not inversely correlated with expression of its targets although miR172 -mediated cleavage of SNB was detected by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). [score:7]
Our analyses of expression of miR172 and its target mRNAs are consistent with it acting through transcriptional and/or translational repression with the latter as a possible predominant mode of action of miR172 in rice. [score:7]
Analyses of expression of three miR172 targets showed that SUPERNUMERARY BRACT (SNB) and Os03g60430 have high expression in developing panicles. [score:7]
There was not a uniform decrease in the expression of the AP2-like miR172 target mRNAs in the miR172b over -expression plants. [score:7]
These results suggest that timing and/or positioning of the floral organ meristems are interrupted by over -expression of miR172b, indicating that a proper expression of miR172 target genes is important in specification of floral organ identities. [score:7]
In turn, the transcription of miR172 target genes is under direct or indirect feedback regulation by their protein products [21]. [score:6]
These observations are consistent with miR172 functioning via translational repression or with expression of the AP2-like genes being regulated by a negative feedback loop. [score:6]
The phenotypes resulting from over -expression of miR172b suggests it represses SNB and at least one of the other miR172 targets, most likely Os03g60430, indicating roles for other AP2-like genes in rice floret development. [score:6]
A primer pair spanning the miR172 target site was used to quantify expression of the uncleaved target mRNAs. [score:6]
Analysis of miR172 expression showed that plants with the strongest phenotypic aberrations had the highest expression levels of miR172 (Figure 4). [score:5]
Higher expression of miR172 in later stage vegetative tissues and developing young panicles is consistent with a role in regulating the timing of floret initiation and development in rice. [score:5]
Our data showed that both miR172 and SNB are highly expressed in <1 cm long panicles, so miR172 could be acting to restrict the expression domain of SNB. [score:5]
This could be a result of spatiotemporal expression differences between individual members of the miR172 family, or their targets, but does not rule out the possibility that only MIR172e is functional. [score:5]
These results suggested tissue- or cell-type-specific expression of miR172 and/or its target genes. [score:5]
This is a result of repression of SNB and at least one of the other four target genes, most likely Os03g60430, by the elevated levels of miR172 in plants over -expressing miR172b. [score:5]
Analysis of miR172 expression showed that it is most highly expressed in late vegetative stages and developing panicles. [score:5]
Expression profiles of miR172 and its target genes. [score:5]
To determine whether these rice AP2-like genes are regulated by miR172 and investigate the function of the target genes, we studied the effect of over -expressing two members of the miR172 family on rice plant development. [score:5]
miR172 and the AP2-like genes had overlapping expression patterns in rice and their expression did not show an obvious negative correlation. [score:5]
Figure 7 qRT-PCR analyses of miR172 target genes in panicles of wild-type and miR172b over -expression plants. [score:5]
In Arabidopsis, both loss-of-function ap2 mutants and miR172 over -expression plants have carpels in place of perianth organs (sepals and petals) due to the absence of AP2 and ectopic expression of AGAMOUS (AG), a class C gene, in the outer two whorls of the flower primordium [13, 14]. [score:5]
These phenotypes not only recapitulated but enhanced the mutant phenotypes of SNB, suggesting that SNB and at least one of the other four targets of miR172 were repressed in plants over -expressing miR172b. [score:5]
miR172 has been shown to cleave AP2 and AP2-like target mRNAs in Arabidopsis [13, 14, 21] and maize [15, 17], but is thought to act predominantly through translational repression [13- 15]. [score:5]
miR172 is conserved in higher plants and has been shown to regulate expression of a sub-group of APETALA2 (AP2)-like transcription factors that contain two AP2 domains in Arabidopsis [13, 14], tobacco [6] and maize [15- 17]. [score:4]
miR172 is a conserved miRNA family which has been shown to regulate expression of APETALA2 (AP2)-like transcription factors in Arabidopsis and maize. [score:4]
Similar expression patterns of miR172 have also been observed in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis and maize [13, 17], suggesting that miR172 has a conserved role during vegetative development. [score:4]
Recently, SNB, a target of miR172, has been shown to be another gene regulating this transition [24] with snb mutants producing multiple bract-like structures that are equivalent to rudimentary glumes. [score:4]
Our results show that SNB is a target of miR172, which adds another layer of complexity to the regulation of spikelet determinacy in rice. [score:4]
In reproductive tissues, miR172 was consistently expressed although its abundance reduced gradually during panicle development (Figure 1B). [score:4]
Expression levels of each gene in various tissues were analyzed using a primer pair spanning the miR172 target site. [score:4]
In wild-type plants, miR172 expression varied considerably between organs and developmental stages. [score:4]
5' RACE was used to map the miR172 -mediated cleavage sites in the predicted targets. [score:3]
This result suggests that both IDS1 and SID1 are targets of miR172. [score:3]
Elevated levels of miR172 were detected in these miR172 over -expression plants, particularly in plants transformed with pre- MIR172b (Figure 4). [score:3]
To determine whether the five putative targets of miR172 in rice are cleaved by miR172, 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) analysis was performed using RNA isolated from two-leaf stage shoots, 1-10 DAF grains and booting panicles (BP). [score:3]
Figure 2 qRT-PCR analyses of miR172 target genes in wild-type plants. [score:3]
RNA isolation, qRT-PCR analysis and miR172 -mediated cleavage of target genes. [score:3]
Over -expression of miR172 causes floral homeotic phenotypes similar to ap2 loss-of-function mutants [18], such as conversion of sepals and petals into carpels, and reduction of stamen numbers [14]. [score:3]
Generation of miR172 over -expression constructs and transgenic plants. [score:3]
For miR172 over -expression transgenic lines, mature leaves (for northern blot) and panicle samples (for qRT-PCR) were collected from T [0 ]plants. [score:3]
However at present the precise expression domain of miR172 in the panicle is yet to be determined. [score:3]
The mature miR172a-d sequences differ only in their 5' and 3' bases and therefore hybridization with a miR172a probe is likely to detect expression of all mature miR172 sequences. [score:3]
Expression of a miR172-resistant version of AP2 increases stamen number [19]. [score:3]
This might be because the accumulation of miR172 in the MIR172a over -expression plants was not sufficient to cause a phenotypic change (Figure 4). [score:3]
Nucleotides that differ among miR172 family members or their targets are shown in bold italic. [score:3]
Arabidopsis miR172 also acts as a repressor of the AP2-like genes, TARGET OF EAT 1 (TOE1), TOE2 and TOE3 to promote early flowering [13, 20]. [score:3]
miR172 -mediated cleavage of target genes. [score:3]
The rice genome encodes five AP2-like genes predicted to be targets of miR172. [score:3]
It has been shown that miR172b is expressed in seedlings and developing grains [8, 10, 12], whereas miR172c is not detected in developing grains [12]. [score:3]
As SNB is cleaved by miR172 a reduced accumulation of SNB mRNA would be expected in miR172b over -expression plants. [score:3]
The rice miR172 family contains four members (MIR172a-d), which are predicted to target five AP2-like genes, Os03g60430, Os04g55560, Os05g03040, Os06g43220 and Os07g13170 [ref [24] and this study]. [score:3]
Expression of miR172 was below the detection limit in 10 DAF (days-after-fertilization) grains (Figure 1B). [score:3]
In Arabidopsis, miR172 serves as a negative regulator of AP2 to specify floral organ identity. [score:2]
5' RACE results suggest that Os04g55560 is regulated by miR172 in both vegetative and reproductive tissues (Figure 3). [score:2]
The abundance of intact transcripts of miR172 target genes was analyzed by qRT-PCR using primer pairs spanning the miR172 cleavage sites. [score:2]
However, it is not known whether or not ZmRap2.7 is also regulated by miR172 as TOE1 is in Arabidopsis. [score:2]
To investigate the functions of the AP2-like genes, we studied the effect of elevated expression of miR172 on rice development. [score:2]
We provide direct evidence for miR172 -mediated cleavage for SNB, Os04g55560 and Os06g43220. [score:2]
B, Accumulation of miR172 in reproductive tissues and grains. [score:1]
Among the five miR172 targets in rice, Os04g55560 is most similar to Arabidopsis AP2 based on phylogenetic analysis, but its function has not been investigated in rice. [score:1]
Mature miR172 accumulation increased significantly in leaves but not in roots as plants grew, reaching a maximum in the flag leaf (Figure 1A). [score:1]
Figure 4 RNA gel blot detection of accumulation of miR172 in mature leaves of wild-type and miR172 transgenic plants. [score:1]
Plants transformed with pre- MIR172a did not show any altered phenotypes (data not shown), even though miR172 accumulated to a higher level than in wild-type plants (Figure 4). [score:1]
To generate the ubiquitin-pre- MIR172 constructs, the SacI fragment released from the pGEM [®]-T Easy vector was gel purified and cloned into the similarly digested vector pKU352 [31]. [score:1]
Figure 1 RNA gel blot analysis of accumulation of miR172 in wild-type plants. [score:1]
A, Accumulation of miR172 in vegetative tissues. [score:1]
Functional specificity of miR172 members. [score:1]
The ids1 sid1 double mutants rescue the phenotypic defects of tasselseed4 (ts4), a loss-of-function mutant of MIR172e [16], one of the five MIR172 genes in maize. [score:1]
The reduced accumulation of miR172 could be because the transgene containing pre- MIR172a is transcribed less efficiently than the pre- MIR172b transgene, or as pre- MIR172a is the least stable precursor (ΔG = -49.1 kcal/mol) among the four miR172 precursors in rice, it may be cleaved by miR172a itself as shown in Arabidopsis [30]. [score:1]
Of the four rice MIR172 members, MIR172b has a mature miRNA sequence identical to maize MIR172e. [score:1]
Cleavage of Os04g55560 was detected in a mixed sample of shoot and grain as well as in booting panicles; cleavage of Os06g43220 was only detected in the mixed sample with a low frequency (most likely contributed by young seedlings as accumulation of miR172 was below the detection limit in 10 DAF grains); and cleavage of SNB was only detected in booting panicles. [score:1]
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2
[+] score: 85
Other miRNAs from this paper: zma-MIR160a, zma-MIR160c, zma-MIR160d, zma-MIR160b, zma-MIR164a, zma-MIR164d, zma-MIR164b, zma-MIR164c, zma-MIR169a, zma-MIR169b, zma-MIR160e, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, sbi-MIR172b, sbi-MIR172c, sbi-MIR172a, sbi-MIR160d, sbi-MIR160a, sbi-MIR160c, sbi-MIR160b, sbi-MIR160e, sbi-MIR164a, sbi-MIR169b, sbi-MIR169a, sbi-MIR395b, sbi-MIR395a, sbi-MIR395d, sbi-MIR395e, sbi-MIR164b, sbi-MIR169c, sbi-MIR169d, sbi-MIR169f, sbi-MIR169g, sbi-MIR169i, sbi-MIR172e, sbi-MIR319a, zma-MIR395b, zma-MIR395c, zma-MIR395a, zma-MIR319a, zma-MIR319c, zma-MIR319b, zma-MIR319d, zma-MIR169c, zma-MIR169f, zma-MIR169g, zma-MIR169h, zma-MIR169i, zma-MIR169k, zma-MIR169j, zma-MIR169d, zma-MIR169e, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR160f, sbi-MIR164c, sbi-MIR395f, sbi-MIR160f, sbi-MIR164d, sbi-MIR164e, sbi-MIR169e, sbi-MIR169h, sbi-MIR169j, sbi-MIR169k, sbi-MIR169l, sbi-MIR169m, sbi-MIR169n, sbi-MIR172d, sbi-MIR319b, sbi-MIR395c, sbi-MIR395g, sbi-MIR395h, sbi-MIR395i, sbi-MIR395j, sbi-MIR395k, sbi-MIR395l, sbi-MIR437g, zma-MIR160g, zma-MIR164e, zma-MIR164f, zma-MIR164g, zma-MIR164h, zma-MIR169l, zma-MIR169m, zma-MIR169n, zma-MIR169o, zma-MIR169p, zma-MIR169q, zma-MIR169r, zma-MIR395d, zma-MIR395e, zma-MIR395f, zma-MIR395g, zma-MIR395h, zma-MIR395i, zma-MIR395j, zma-MIR395k, zma-MIR395l, zma-MIR395m, zma-MIR395n, zma-MIR395o, zma-MIR395p, sbi-MIR169o, sbi-MIR169p, sbi-MIR169q, sbi-MIR172f, sbi-MIR5381, sbi-MIR5382, sbi-MIR5383, sbi-MIR5384, sbi-MIR5385, sbi-MIR5386, sbi-MIR5387a, sbi-MIR5388, sbi-MIR5389, sbi-MIR5387b
Furthermore, when the expression of these two miR172 target genes was tested, we found that they were expressed higher in Rio compared with BTx623 as expected. [score:6]
In summary, high expression of miR172 in BTx623 correlated with early flowering in the F2, whereas the opposite was true for miR395, high expression of this miRNA in Rio correlated with late flowering in the F2 plants selected. [score:5]
We found that variation in miR172 and miR395 expression correlated with flowering time whereas variation in miR169 expression correlated with sugar content in stems. [score:5]
Considering a cutoff level of two-fold change in miRNA expression, we found that miR169 and miR172 were expressed higher in BTx623 relative to Rio, and higher in LB/EF F2s compared to HB/LF F2s. [score:4]
A FRIGIDA-like 2 (FRL2) and a TYPE A RESPONSE REGULATOR 3 (RR3) were predicted as new targets of miR172 with the cleavage product of FRL2 experimentally validated in this study (Additional file 5, Figure S2). [score:4]
Table S3 provides a list of predicted target genes of miR169, miR172, and miR395. [score:3]
Regarding the miR172-predicted targets, we detected cleavage products for the genes INDETERMINATE SPIKELET 1 (IDS1) and an AP2 transcription factor (Additional file 3, Table S3; Additional file 4, Figure S1; and Additional file 5, Figure S2). [score:3]
The most abundantly expressed miRNA family was miR172 (Figure 3a), comprising almost 6% of the total reads with perfect match to the BTx623 genome. [score:3]
Click here for file Mapping of miR172 -guided cleavage sites in predicted target genes. [score:3]
Predicted targets of miR169, miR172, and miR395. [score:3]
From all miRNAs whose expression could be detected in sorghum stems, two of them were found to be within introns of protein coding genes, these included miR172c and miR437g. [score:3]
Figure S2 displays an alignment of miR172 with its target sequences and cleavage sites. [score:3]
Although the expression difference of miR160, miR164 and miR319 between BTx623 and Rio was inherited in the F2, and thus of interest for further analysis, it was less than two fold; so we decided to focus on miR169, miR172 and miR395 instead. [score:3]
Targets of predicted for miR169, miR172 and miR395 microRNAs. [score:3]
The expression of miR169 and miR172 was at least twice as high in BTx623 relative to that in Rio and this difference was inherited in the F2. [score:3]
Mapping of miR172 -guided cleavage sites in predicted target genes. [score:3]
Consistent with the role of miR172 in flowering, we did not observe any difference in the expression of miR172a in F2 plants with the same flowering time but different Brix (Figure 3f). [score:3]
The observation that high expression of miR172 correlated with early flowering is consistent with the reported role of this miRNA in the promotion of flowering [32- 36]. [score:3]
Click here for file Predicted targets of miR169, miR172, and miR395. [score:3]
Click here for file Targets of predicted for miR169, miR172 and miR395 microRNAs. [score:3]
Figure S1 displays an alignment between miR169, miR172 and miR395 microRNAs and their target sequences. [score:3]
The FRL2 and RR3 genes are novel targets of miR172. [score:3]
Consistent with this, a role of miR172 in the regulation of flowering time by ambient temperature in Arabidopsis has been recently described [42]. [score:2]
Although sorghum is a crop from semi-arid regions [26], the miR172 -mediated post-transcriptional regulation of FRL2 might have a role in the adaptation of sorghum to temperate climates. [score:2]
The small RNA reads derived from miR172c in sorghum stem tissue are 22 nt in length in contrast to the previously predicted length of 20 nt. [score:1]
Furthermore, we found that a high proportion of the 22 nt reads were derived from miR172c, accounting for approximately 15% of all the 22 nt reads in the BTx623 library (Figure 2c). [score:1]
Thus, it would be interesting to test if miR172c can also trigger siRNA biogenesis in sorghum. [score:1]
Interestingly, MIR172c is located within the third intron of the Sb04g037375 gene. [score:1]
Furthermore, we found that up to 15% of all the 22 nt small RNAs in the BTx623 library were derived from miR172c, which has been previously predicted to have a length of 20 nt (Paterson et al. 2009). [score:1]
Our results differ from the predicted length of 20 nt for miR172c annotated in the miRBase database. [score:1]
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3
[+] score: 64
Other miRNAs from this paper: zma-MIR156d, zma-MIR156f, zma-MIR156g, zma-MIR156b, zma-MIR156c, zma-MIR156e, zma-MIR156a, zma-MIR156h, zma-MIR156i, zma-MIR160a, zma-MIR160c, zma-MIR160d, zma-MIR160b, zma-MIR164a, zma-MIR164d, zma-MIR164b, zma-MIR164c, zma-MIR169a, zma-MIR169b, zma-MIR167a, zma-MIR167b, zma-MIR167d, zma-MIR167c, zma-MIR160e, zma-MIR171a, zma-MIR171b, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, zma-MIR171d, zma-MIR171f, zma-MIR394a, zma-MIR394b, zma-MIR395b, zma-MIR395c, zma-MIR395a, zma-MIR396b, zma-MIR396a, zma-MIR399a, zma-MIR399c, zma-MIR399b, zma-MIR399d, zma-MIR399e, zma-MIR399f, zma-MIR156j, zma-MIR159a, zma-MIR159b, zma-MIR159c, zma-MIR159d, zma-MIR319a, zma-MIR319c, zma-MIR319b, zma-MIR319d, zma-MIR167e, zma-MIR167f, zma-MIR167g, zma-MIR167h, zma-MIR167i, zma-MIR169c, zma-MIR169f, zma-MIR169g, zma-MIR169h, zma-MIR169i, zma-MIR169k, zma-MIR169j, zma-MIR169d, zma-MIR169e, zma-MIR171c, zma-MIR171j, zma-MIR171e, zma-MIR171i, zma-MIR171g, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR171k, zma-MIR171h, zma-MIR408a, zma-MIR156k, zma-MIR160f, zma-MIR396c, zma-MIR396d, zma-MIR156l, zma-MIR159e, zma-MIR159f, zma-MIR159g, zma-MIR159h, zma-MIR159i, zma-MIR159j, zma-MIR159k, zma-MIR160g, zma-MIR164e, zma-MIR164f, zma-MIR164g, zma-MIR164h, zma-MIR167j, zma-MIR169l, zma-MIR169m, zma-MIR169n, zma-MIR169o, zma-MIR169p, zma-MIR169q, zma-MIR169r, zma-MIR171l, zma-MIR171m, zma-MIR171n, zma-MIR395d, zma-MIR395e, zma-MIR395f, zma-MIR395g, zma-MIR395h, zma-MIR395i, zma-MIR395j, zma-MIR395k, zma-MIR395l, zma-MIR395m, zma-MIR395n, zma-MIR395o, zma-MIR395p, zma-MIR396e, zma-MIR396f, zma-MIR396g, zma-MIR396h, zma-MIR399g, zma-MIR399h, zma-MIR399i, zma-MIR399j, zma-MIR408b, zma-MIR529
Among the target genes profiled in the ear leaves of the inbred line ELS-1, the gene expression trends were opposite those of miR171, miR172, miR159, and miR396, suggesting that these miRNA target genes were subjected to a negative regulation by the miRNAs, most likely through a target cleavage pathway. [score:10]
Similarly, the expression trends of miR159, miR169, and miR172 were negatively correlated with those of their target genes in the inbred line Yu87-1, while the expression levels of miR171 and miR529 were positively correlated with their target genes. [score:9]
Among the candidate miRNAs, miR159, miR169, miR394, and miR529 were up-regulated from 20 to 30DAP, and miR172, miR167, and miR171 were down-regulated from 20 to 30DAP. [score:7]
In this study, six miRNAs regulating nodes, miR172, miR159, miR171, miR167, pre-mir131, and pre-mir11, were highlighted as key regulators of leaf senescence because of their differential expression profiles between ELS-1 and Yu87-1, and a candidate miRNA -dependent leaf senescence pathway was established based on the differentially expressed miRNAs and their potential functions discussed (Fig.   6). [score:7]
Among them, zma-miR167, zma-miR171,and zma-miR172 were down-regulated in both inbred lines, while zma-miR156, zma-miR395, zma-miR399, zma-miR408, and zma-miR529 were up-regulated in both inbred lines between 20 and 30DAP. [score:7]
Additionally, other miRNAs and their targets, for example, osa-miR159, osa-miR160/miR167, osa-miR164,and osa-miR172, targeting mRNAs coding for MYB/TCP, Auxin Response Factor, salicylic acid -induced protein 19, and AP2 proteins, respectively, were also found to be involved in leaf senescence through phytohormone signaling pathways in rice [23]. [score:5]
Among those identified in the leaves of inbred line ELS-1, differentially expressed miRNAs whose |log [2]-fold change| was >1.5 in the leaves of inbred line Yu87-1 were removed, and 16 candidate miRNAs were finally identified in the leaves of inbred line ELS-1. These 16 differentially expressed miRNAs, belonging to nine miRNA families, zma-miR156, zma-miR159, zma-miR167, zma-miR171, zma-miR172, zma-miR395, zma-miR399, zma-miR408, and zma-miR529, were selected as candidate SA-miRNAs (Fig.   3). [score:5]
Additionally, zma-miR172c negatively regulated its target genes, which encoded AP2 proteins, as identified through degradome sequencing (Fig.   4). [score:4]
In correlation to this study, the expression levels of zma-miR172c in the leaves of the inbred line ELS-1 were lower than in the inbred line Yu87-1 during the late stage of leaf development (20-30DAP). [score:4]
Osa-miR172a, osa-miR172c, and osa-miR172d were identified as targeting genes of AP2-like factors in the leaves of rice [23]. [score:3]
High levels of osa-miR172a, osa-miR172c, and osa-miR172d depressed the expression levels of AP2-like factor genes, which retarded leaf senescence. [score:3]
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4
[+] score: 50
That is, they all (miR159 and its target with IAA; miR166, miR169, miR393, miR396, and their targets with ZR + iPA; miR159, miR396 and their targets with GA; miR396 and their targets with BR; miR159, miR396 and their targets with JA; miR160, miR164, miR166, miR169, miR172, and miR396 and their targets with ABA) showed a significant positive and/or negative correlation with the phytohormone levels. [score:13]
Overall, the degradome and qRT-PCR analyses suggest that the differentially expressed miR172 might also regulate carpel fusion during maize ovary development by targeting AP2. [score:7]
Moreover, two targets of miR156 were found to positively regulate miR172 expression by binding their sequence to the regulatory region of miR172 (Wu et al., 2009). [score:7]
For example, maize ts4, which encodes miR172 and targets the AP2 homolog indeterminate spikelet 1, has two tandem AP2 domains and plays an important role in regulating maize inflorescence development (Chuck et al., 2007). [score:5]
Moreover, the TF AP2, one identified target of miR172, was found to be involved in carpel fusion during Arabidopsis gynoecium development (Ripoll et al., 2011). [score:4]
In our study, expression of miR172 was down regulated, while that of miR156 was up regulated in IFC compared to CFC ovaries (Table 2), suggesting a similar interaction between miR172 and miR156 may exist in maize ovary as well. [score:4]
The sequential action of miR156 and miR172 regulates developmental timing in Arabidopsis. [score:3]
Eight known miRNAs (miR159, miR160, miR164, miR166, miR169, miR172, miR393, and miR396), four newly identified miRNAs, and 12 target genes were selected for qRT-PCR validation. [score:3]
In ts4 mutants, the floret of the male inflorescence fails to form stamens and develops unfused carpels (Chuck et al., 2007), suggesting a role of miR172 in regulation of carpel fusion development in maize female inflorescences. [score:3]
For example, a previous study showed that maize ts4, which encodes miR172, plays a key role in carpel fusion in pistils of tassel flowers (Chuck et al., 2007). [score:1]
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5
[+] score: 47
Five miRNAs (miR169, miR172, miR397, miR398, and miR827) were identified as being differentially expressed in leaves in response to the transient low N condition, with miR172 up-regulated but miR397, miR398, and miR827 down-regulated (Table S1). [score:9]
Under N-limiting condition, three of the miRNAs (miR164, miR172, and miR827) were up-regulated while the others were down-regulated (Table S1). [score:7]
The first includes miR160, miR164, miR167, miR169, miR172, and miR319, which target transcription factors involved in further regulation of gene expression and signal transduction. [score:6]
In maize, miR172, also known as tasselseed4 (ts4), was shown to be involved in the regulation of maize floral organ identity and meristem acquisition through the target gene which is the APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factor ids1 [42]. [score:4]
Salvi et al [43] once reported an interesting work on mapping and cloning a flowering time locus of ZmRap2.7, one of AP2 like orthologs with the target site for miR172, which was therefore likely to be also regulated by an miR172 -mediated trans-acting mechanism. [score:4]
For example, miR398(b,c), miR172(a,b,c,d) and miR397(a,b) had the same response under chronic and transient treatments in leaves, while miR408 and miR169(f,g,h) were down-regulated in both treatments and both tissues. [score:4]
Nine miRNA faimlies (miR164, miR169, miR172, miR397, miR398, miR399, miR408, miR528, and miR827) were identified to be differentially expressed in leaves in response to chronic low N condition. [score:3]
Three of these five miRNAs (miR172, miR397, miR398) shared the same expression patterns in their response to both chronic and transient N-limiting conditions, while one of them (miRNA827) showed an inverse response to the two conditions (Table S1, Fig. 1). [score:3]
With regards to tissue specificity(or tissue dependent), some miRNAs were only regulated in roots or leaves, such as miR160, miR167, miR168, miR319 and miR395 in roots, and miR164, miR172, miR397, miR398 and miR827 in leaves, while some others were regulated in both tissues, such as miR169, miR399, miR408 and miR528 (Fig. 4). [score:3]
MiR172 has eight potential target genes including five APETALA2 (AP2) like transcription factors. [score:2]
Nine miRNA families (miR164, miR169, miR172, miR397, miR398, miR399, miR408, miR528, and miR827) were identified in leaves, and nine miRNA families (miR160, miR167, miR168, miR169, miR319, miR395, miR399, miR408, and miR528) identified in roots. [score:1]
The five miRNAs (miR169, miR172, miR397, miR398, and miR827) identified in leaves in response to transient low N condition were among the nine miRNAs identified under chronic N-limiting condition (Table S1, Fig. 1). [score:1]
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[+] score: 27
There are six targets (two GAMYB targets of miR159/319, two ARF targets of miR167, one AP2/ERF target of miR172, and one F-box (TIR1-like gene)), which were validated by the 5′-RLM-RACE (Figure 8). [score:9]
These 13 targets are targeted by 8 miRNA families (miR159, miR164, miR167, miR172, miR319, miR393, miR528, miRn7) (Table S9), which are active participants in the signal transduction at the early stage of hypoxia conditions. [score:5]
In addition to these 3 pathways, other miRNAs might be involved in the waterlogging responses such as miR172 that serves as a negative regulator of AP2, which is involved in flowering development [92]. [score:3]
Expression levels of miR159h/i, miR172c, miR398b, miR408b, and miR528a were decreased in Mo17 but were increased in B73 and Hz32. [score:3]
motifsExpression levels of miR159h/i, miR172c, miR398b, miR408b, and miR528a were decreased in Mo17 but were increased in B73 and Hz32. [score:3]
Out of 30 differentially expressed miRNAs in B73 that were studied for motif predictions, six miRNA genes (miR159h, miR159i, miR172c, miR398b, miR408b, miR528a) related to cluster 3 are induced whereas rest of the 24 miRNAs genes related to cluster 1 and 2 are repressed under hypoxia conditions. [score:3]
Additionally, putative binding sites of HMG, and SQUA TFs were present only in miR172c. [score:1]
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[+] score: 25
One of the most well understood examples is the antagonistic interplay of miR156 and miR172 node, that is, SPL9, the down-regulated target of miR156, is able to directly bind to the promoter of miR172b gene and correspondingly promote its expression, which coordinately regulated the transition from vegetative phase to reproductive phase. [score:10]
For example, miR156 reaches its peak expression at 7 DAP, while miR172 exhibits its lowest expression level at the same developmental stage (Figure S2A). [score:6]
Figure S2 The expression pattern of miR156 and miR172 (A) as well as miR390 and TAS3 (B) in 0-, 3-, 5-DAP kernels and 7-, 10-, and 15-DAP endosperm in maize. [score:3]
” Correspondingly, the abundance of miR156 decreases at 10 and15 DAP while miR172 increases, consistent with the expression trends during leaf aging. [score:3]
Specifically, increased abundance of miR156 prolongs the juvenile stage and delays the adult stage transition, while highly expressed miR172 leads to early flowering and premature features of vegetative growth. [score:3]
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[+] score: 23
Other miRNAs from this paper: zma-MIR156d, zma-MIR156f, zma-MIR156g, zma-MIR156b, zma-MIR156c, zma-MIR156e, zma-MIR156a, zma-MIR156h, zma-MIR156i, zma-MIR160a, zma-MIR160c, zma-MIR160d, zma-MIR160b, zma-MIR164a, zma-MIR164d, zma-MIR164b, zma-MIR164c, zma-MIR169a, zma-MIR169b, zma-MIR167a, zma-MIR167b, zma-MIR167d, zma-MIR167c, zma-MIR160e, zma-MIR166a, zma-MIR162, zma-MIR166h, zma-MIR166e, zma-MIR166i, zma-MIR166f, zma-MIR166g, zma-MIR166b, zma-MIR166c, zma-MIR166d, zma-MIR171a, zma-MIR171b, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, zma-MIR171d, zma-MIR171f, zma-MIR394a, zma-MIR394b, zma-MIR395b, zma-MIR395c, zma-MIR395a, zma-MIR396b, zma-MIR396a, zma-MIR399a, zma-MIR399c, zma-MIR399b, zma-MIR399d, zma-MIR399e, zma-MIR399f, zma-MIR156j, zma-MIR159a, zma-MIR159b, zma-MIR159c, zma-MIR159d, zma-MIR319a, zma-MIR319c, zma-MIR319b, zma-MIR319d, zma-MIR166k, zma-MIR166j, zma-MIR167e, zma-MIR167f, zma-MIR167g, zma-MIR167h, zma-MIR167i, zma-MIR168a, zma-MIR168b, zma-MIR169c, zma-MIR169f, zma-MIR169g, zma-MIR169h, zma-MIR169i, zma-MIR169k, zma-MIR169j, zma-MIR169d, zma-MIR169e, zma-MIR171c, zma-MIR171j, zma-MIR171e, zma-MIR171i, zma-MIR171g, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR166l, zma-MIR166m, zma-MIR171k, zma-MIR171h, zma-MIR393a, zma-MIR408a, zma-MIR156k, zma-MIR160f, zma-MIR396c, zma-MIR396d, zma-MIR156l, zma-MIR159e, zma-MIR159f, zma-MIR159g, zma-MIR159h, zma-MIR159i, zma-MIR159j, zma-MIR159k, zma-MIR160g, zma-MIR164e, zma-MIR164f, zma-MIR164g, zma-MIR164h, zma-MIR166n, zma-MIR167j, zma-MIR169l, zma-MIR169m, zma-MIR169n, zma-MIR169o, zma-MIR169p, zma-MIR169q, zma-MIR169r, zma-MIR171l, zma-MIR171m, zma-MIR171n, zma-MIR393b, zma-MIR393c, zma-MIR395d, zma-MIR395e, zma-MIR395f, zma-MIR395g, zma-MIR395h, zma-MIR395i, zma-MIR395j, zma-MIR395k, zma-MIR395l, zma-MIR395m, zma-MIR395n, zma-MIR395o, zma-MIR395p, zma-MIR396e, zma-MIR396f, zma-MIR396g, zma-MIR396h, zma-MIR397a, zma-MIR397b, zma-MIR398a, zma-MIR398b, zma-MIR399g, zma-MIR399h, zma-MIR399i, zma-MIR399j, zma-MIR408b, zma-MIR482, zma-MIR528a, zma-MIR528b, zma-MIR529, zma-MIR827, zma-MIR1432, zma-MIR444a, zma-MIR444b
In our data, we found that the expression of miR156 and miR172 families are anti-correlated (Table S4); miR156 is expressed higher in young roots and seedlings but lower in adult tissues (tassel, ear, and pollen), while miR172 expression has an opposite trend, albeit with a lower overall expression level. [score:9]
Intriguingly, mutations in Corngrass1 (Cg1) result in the over -expression of miR156 and decreased miR172 levels, resulting in alterations of the juvenile to adult phase transition [24], [25]. [score:4]
The same trend is observed in many other miRNA families including miR164, miR166, miR169, miR171, miR172, miR319 and miR396 as they target various families of transcription factors such as NAM (No Apical Meristem) proteins, bZIP (basic-leucine Zipper) genes, CBF (CCAAT binding factor), GRAS transcription factor, AP2 (APETALA2)-EREBP (Ethylene-Responsive Element Binding Proteins), CCCH type zinc finger protein and TCP (Teosinite branched, Cycloidea, and PCF), GRF transcription factor families respectively [12], [71], [85]– [87]. [score:3]
The miR156, miR164, miR168, miR393, miR395, miR396, miR398, and miR399 families had higher signatures in juvenile root and seedling tissues while miR172 demonstrated a higher expression level in reproductive tissues (tassel and ear). [score:3]
This converse regulatory relationship between miR156 and miR172 has also been reported recently [62]. [score:2]
These families are: miR156, miR160, miR164, miR166, miR167, miR172, miR396, and miR528. [score:1]
These results fit well with the current mo dels of phase transition, whereby opposing gradients of miR156 and miR172 are responsible for the transition from juvenile to adult. [score:1]
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[+] score: 22
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR156a, ath-MIR156b, ath-MIR156c, ath-MIR156d, ath-MIR156e, ath-MIR156f, ath-MIR159a, ath-MIR160a, ath-MIR160b, ath-MIR160c, ath-MIR162a, ath-MIR162b, ath-MIR164a, ath-MIR164b, ath-MIR166a, ath-MIR166b, ath-MIR166c, ath-MIR166d, ath-MIR166e, ath-MIR166f, ath-MIR166g, ath-MIR167a, ath-MIR167b, ath-MIR168a, ath-MIR168b, ath-MIR169a, ath-MIR172a, ath-MIR172b, ath-MIR159b, osa-MIR156a, osa-MIR156b, osa-MIR156c, osa-MIR156d, osa-MIR156e, osa-MIR156f, osa-MIR156g, osa-MIR156h, osa-MIR156i, osa-MIR156j, osa-MIR160a, osa-MIR160b, osa-MIR160c, osa-MIR160d, osa-MIR162a, osa-MIR164a, osa-MIR164b, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR167a, osa-MIR167b, osa-MIR167c, osa-MIR169a, ath-MIR167d, ath-MIR169b, ath-MIR169c, ath-MIR169d, ath-MIR169e, ath-MIR169f, ath-MIR169g, ath-MIR169h, ath-MIR169i, ath-MIR169j, ath-MIR169k, ath-MIR169l, ath-MIR169m, ath-MIR169n, ath-MIR172c, ath-MIR172d, ath-MIR395a, ath-MIR395b, ath-MIR395c, ath-MIR395d, ath-MIR395e, ath-MIR395f, ath-MIR396a, ath-MIR396b, ath-MIR399a, ath-MIR399b, ath-MIR399c, ath-MIR399d, ath-MIR399e, ath-MIR399f, osa-MIR395b, osa-MIR395d, osa-MIR395e, osa-MIR395g, osa-MIR395h, osa-MIR395i, osa-MIR395j, osa-MIR395k, osa-MIR395l, osa-MIR395s, osa-MIR395t, osa-MIR395c, osa-MIR395a, osa-MIR395f, osa-MIR395u, osa-MIR396a, osa-MIR396b, osa-MIR396c, osa-MIR399a, osa-MIR399b, osa-MIR399c, osa-MIR399d, osa-MIR399e, osa-MIR399f, osa-MIR399g, osa-MIR399h, osa-MIR399i, osa-MIR399j, osa-MIR399k, ath-MIR408, ath-MIR156g, ath-MIR156h, ath-MIR159c, ath-MIR164c, ath-MIR167c, ath-MIR172e, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR156l, osa-MIR159a, osa-MIR159b, osa-MIR159c, osa-MIR159d, osa-MIR159e, osa-MIR159f, osa-MIR160e, osa-MIR160f, osa-MIR162b, osa-MIR164c, osa-MIR164d, osa-MIR164e, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR167d, osa-MIR167e, osa-MIR167f, osa-MIR167g, osa-MIR167h, osa-MIR167i, osa-MIR168a, osa-MIR168b, osa-MIR169b, osa-MIR169c, osa-MIR169d, osa-MIR169e, osa-MIR169f, osa-MIR169g, osa-MIR169h, osa-MIR169i, osa-MIR169j, osa-MIR169k, osa-MIR169l, osa-MIR169m, osa-MIR169n, osa-MIR169o, osa-MIR169p, osa-MIR169q, osa-MIR172a, osa-MIR172b, osa-MIR172c, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR171h, osa-MIR408, osa-MIR172d, osa-MIR167j, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, osa-MIR164f, zma-MIR156d, zma-MIR156f, zma-MIR156g, zma-MIR156b, zma-MIR156c, zma-MIR156e, zma-MIR156a, zma-MIR156h, zma-MIR156i, zma-MIR160a, zma-MIR160c, zma-MIR160d, zma-MIR160b, zma-MIR164a, zma-MIR164d, zma-MIR164b, zma-MIR164c, zma-MIR169a, zma-MIR169b, zma-MIR167a, zma-MIR167b, zma-MIR167d, zma-MIR167c, zma-MIR160e, zma-MIR166a, zma-MIR162, zma-MIR166h, zma-MIR166e, zma-MIR166i, zma-MIR166f, zma-MIR166g, zma-MIR166b, zma-MIR166c, zma-MIR166d, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, osa-MIR396e, zma-MIR395b, zma-MIR395c, zma-MIR395a, zma-MIR396b, zma-MIR396a, zma-MIR399a, zma-MIR399c, zma-MIR399b, zma-MIR399d, zma-MIR399e, zma-MIR399f, zma-MIR156j, zma-MIR159a, zma-MIR159b, zma-MIR159c, zma-MIR159d, zma-MIR166k, zma-MIR166j, zma-MIR167e, zma-MIR167f, zma-MIR167g, zma-MIR167h, zma-MIR167i, zma-MIR168a, zma-MIR168b, zma-MIR169c, zma-MIR169f, zma-MIR169g, zma-MIR169h, zma-MIR169i, zma-MIR169k, zma-MIR169j, zma-MIR169d, zma-MIR169e, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR166l, zma-MIR166m, zma-MIR171h, zma-MIR408a, zma-MIR156k, zma-MIR160f, osa-MIR529a, osa-MIR395m, osa-MIR395n, osa-MIR395o, osa-MIR395p, osa-MIR395q, osa-MIR395v, osa-MIR395w, osa-MIR395r, osa-MIR529b, osa-MIR169r, osa-MIR396f, zma-MIR396c, zma-MIR396d, osa-MIR2118a, osa-MIR2118b, osa-MIR2118c, osa-MIR2118d, osa-MIR2118e, osa-MIR2118f, osa-MIR2118g, osa-MIR2118h, osa-MIR2118i, osa-MIR2118j, osa-MIR2118k, osa-MIR2118l, osa-MIR2118m, osa-MIR2118n, osa-MIR2118o, osa-MIR2118p, osa-MIR2118q, osa-MIR2118r, osa-MIR2275a, osa-MIR2275b, zma-MIR2118a, zma-MIR2118b, zma-MIR2118c, zma-MIR2118d, zma-MIR2118e, zma-MIR2118f, zma-MIR2118g, zma-MIR2275a, zma-MIR2275b, zma-MIR2275c, zma-MIR2275d, osa-MIR396g, osa-MIR396h, osa-MIR396d, zma-MIR156l, zma-MIR159e, zma-MIR159f, zma-MIR159g, zma-MIR159h, zma-MIR159i, zma-MIR159j, zma-MIR159k, zma-MIR160g, zma-MIR164e, zma-MIR164f, zma-MIR164g, zma-MIR164h, zma-MIR166n, zma-MIR167j, zma-MIR169l, zma-MIR169m, zma-MIR169n, zma-MIR169o, zma-MIR169p, zma-MIR169q, zma-MIR169r, zma-MIR395d, zma-MIR395e, zma-MIR395f, zma-MIR395g, zma-MIR395h, zma-MIR395i, zma-MIR395j, zma-MIR395k, zma-MIR395l, zma-MIR395m, zma-MIR395n, zma-MIR395o, zma-MIR395p, zma-MIR396e, zma-MIR396f, zma-MIR396g, zma-MIR396h, zma-MIR399g, zma-MIR399h, zma-MIR399i, zma-MIR399j, zma-MIR408b, zma-MIR529, osa-MIR395x, osa-MIR395y, osa-MIR2275c, osa-MIR2275d, ath-MIR156i, ath-MIR156j
Beyond miR156 and miR172, miR164 targets genes encoding NAM proteins, and may be involved in regulating ear development (Table  3), similar to how miR164 is postulated to regulate NAC-domain targets in Arabidopsis [58]. [score:8]
miR156a-l probably targets several SPL genes during the juvenile-to-adult phase transition in maize (Figure  4a, Tables  2 and 3), and is postulated to indirectly activate miR172 via SPL[31]. [score:4]
miR172 and its targets IDS1 and SID1 function to influence the SM to FM conversion. [score:3]
Figure 4 miR156 and miR172 in maize flower development (Adapted from Poethig (2009). [score:2]
Previous studies showed that miR156 and miR172 function throughout flower development from the earliest stages (floral induction, stage I) to very late stages (floral organ cell-type specification, stage IV) [31- 34]. [score:2]
miR172 has been shown to negatively regulate GL15 (Table  3), which promotes maintenance of the juvenile state [31]. [score:2]
The levels of miR156 and miR172 are conflicting during phase transition (Figure  4b). [score:1]
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10
[+] score: 21
Other miRNAs from this paper: osa-MIR156a, osa-MIR156b, osa-MIR156c, osa-MIR156d, osa-MIR156e, osa-MIR156f, osa-MIR156g, osa-MIR156h, osa-MIR156i, osa-MIR156j, osa-MIR160a, osa-MIR160b, osa-MIR160c, osa-MIR160d, osa-MIR164a, osa-MIR164b, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR167a, osa-MIR167b, osa-MIR167c, osa-MIR171a, osa-MIR395b, osa-MIR395d, osa-MIR395e, osa-MIR395g, osa-MIR395h, osa-MIR395i, osa-MIR395j, osa-MIR395k, osa-MIR395l, osa-MIR395s, osa-MIR395t, osa-MIR395c, osa-MIR395a, osa-MIR395f, osa-MIR395u, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR156l, osa-MIR159a, osa-MIR159b, osa-MIR159c, osa-MIR159d, osa-MIR159e, osa-MIR159f, osa-MIR160e, osa-MIR160f, osa-MIR164c, osa-MIR164d, osa-MIR164e, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR167d, osa-MIR167e, osa-MIR167f, osa-MIR167g, osa-MIR167h, osa-MIR167i, osa-MIR168a, osa-MIR168b, osa-MIR171b, osa-MIR171c, osa-MIR171d, osa-MIR171e, osa-MIR171f, osa-MIR171g, osa-MIR172a, osa-MIR172b, osa-MIR172c, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR171h, osa-MIR408, osa-MIR172d, osa-MIR171i, osa-MIR167j, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, osa-MIR164f, zma-MIR156d, zma-MIR156f, zma-MIR156g, zma-MIR156b, zma-MIR156c, zma-MIR156e, zma-MIR156a, zma-MIR156h, zma-MIR156i, zma-MIR160a, zma-MIR160c, zma-MIR160d, zma-MIR160b, zma-MIR164a, zma-MIR164d, zma-MIR164b, zma-MIR164c, zma-MIR167a, zma-MIR167b, zma-MIR167d, zma-MIR167c, zma-MIR160e, zma-MIR166a, zma-MIR166h, zma-MIR166e, zma-MIR166i, zma-MIR166f, zma-MIR166g, zma-MIR166b, zma-MIR166c, zma-MIR166d, zma-MIR171a, zma-MIR171b, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, osa-MIR390, osa-MIR444a, zma-MIR171d, zma-MIR171f, zma-MIR395b, zma-MIR395c, zma-MIR395a, zma-MIR156j, zma-MIR159a, zma-MIR159b, zma-MIR159c, zma-MIR159d, zma-MIR166k, zma-MIR166j, zma-MIR167e, zma-MIR167f, zma-MIR167g, zma-MIR167h, zma-MIR167i, zma-MIR168a, zma-MIR168b, zma-MIR171c, zma-MIR171j, zma-MIR171e, zma-MIR171i, zma-MIR171g, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR166l, zma-MIR166m, zma-MIR171k, zma-MIR171h, zma-MIR408a, zma-MIR156k, zma-MIR160f, osa-MIR528, osa-MIR395m, osa-MIR395n, osa-MIR395o, osa-MIR395p, osa-MIR395q, osa-MIR395v, osa-MIR395w, osa-MIR395r, osa-MIR1432, osa-MIR827, osa-MIR2118a, osa-MIR2118b, osa-MIR2118c, osa-MIR2118d, osa-MIR2118e, osa-MIR2118f, osa-MIR2118g, osa-MIR2118h, osa-MIR2118i, osa-MIR2118j, osa-MIR2118k, osa-MIR2118l, osa-MIR2118m, osa-MIR2118n, osa-MIR2118o, osa-MIR2118p, osa-MIR2118q, osa-MIR2118r, osa-MIR2275a, osa-MIR2275b, zma-MIR2118a, zma-MIR2118b, zma-MIR2118c, zma-MIR2118d, zma-MIR2118e, zma-MIR2118f, zma-MIR2118g, zma-MIR2275a, zma-MIR2275b, zma-MIR2275c, zma-MIR2275d, zma-MIR156l, zma-MIR159e, zma-MIR159f, zma-MIR159g, zma-MIR159h, zma-MIR159i, zma-MIR159j, zma-MIR159k, zma-MIR160g, zma-MIR164e, zma-MIR164f, zma-MIR164g, zma-MIR164h, zma-MIR166n, zma-MIR167j, zma-MIR171l, zma-MIR171m, zma-MIR171n, zma-MIR390a, zma-MIR395d, zma-MIR395e, zma-MIR395f, zma-MIR395g, zma-MIR395h, zma-MIR395i, zma-MIR395j, zma-MIR395k, zma-MIR395l, zma-MIR395m, zma-MIR395n, zma-MIR395o, zma-MIR395p, zma-MIR408b, zma-MIR528a, zma-MIR528b, zma-MIR827, zma-MIR1432, zma-MIR390b, osa-MIR395x, osa-MIR395y, osa-MIR2275c, osa-MIR2275d, zma-MIR444a, osa-MIR6251
[58, 67, 68], most of them showed different expression patterns upon exposure to light (Additional file 14) except (a) miR156, miR166, miR172, which showed almost identical expression curves, and (b) miR171 and miR390, which showed shifted expression patterns. [score:7]
For those miRNAs that showed similar expression patterns between maize and rice, i. e., miR156, miR166, miR168, miR172, miR2275 and miR528, GO enrichment analysis of their predicted targets was applied (Additional file 13). [score:5]
miR172, regulator of seed development and phase change in shoot [67], showed drastic difference in responses during de-etiolation, i. e., it was barely detectable in maize while constantly expressed in rice during de-etiolation (Additional file 8). [score:5]
miR156, miR160, miR164, miR166, miR167, miR171, miR172, and miR390, had been earlier reported to play evolutionarily conserved roles in plant development [54]. [score:2]
Among these 8 miRNAs, miR156, miR172 and miR408 are conserved miRNA families between maize and rice. [score:1]
Many of them, i. e., miR156, miR160, miR164, miR166, miR167, miR171, miR172 and miR390, were suggested to play highly evolutionary conserved roles across plant species [54]. [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 6 sentences]
11
[+] score: 18
Other miRNAs from this paper: zma-MIR156d, zma-MIR156f, zma-MIR156g, zma-MIR156b, zma-MIR156c, zma-MIR156e, zma-MIR156a, zma-MIR156h, zma-MIR156i, zma-MIR160a, zma-MIR160c, zma-MIR160d, zma-MIR160b, zma-MIR164a, zma-MIR164d, zma-MIR164b, zma-MIR164c, zma-MIR169a, zma-MIR169b, zma-MIR167a, zma-MIR167b, zma-MIR167d, zma-MIR167c, zma-MIR160e, zma-MIR166a, zma-MIR162, zma-MIR166h, zma-MIR166e, zma-MIR166i, zma-MIR166f, zma-MIR166g, zma-MIR166b, zma-MIR166c, zma-MIR166d, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, zma-MIR394a, zma-MIR394b, zma-MIR395b, zma-MIR395c, zma-MIR395a, zma-MIR399a, zma-MIR399c, zma-MIR399b, zma-MIR399d, zma-MIR399e, zma-MIR399f, zma-MIR156j, zma-MIR159a, zma-MIR159b, zma-MIR159c, zma-MIR159d, zma-MIR319a, zma-MIR319c, zma-MIR319b, zma-MIR319d, zma-MIR166k, zma-MIR166j, zma-MIR167e, zma-MIR167f, zma-MIR167g, zma-MIR167h, zma-MIR167i, zma-MIR168a, zma-MIR168b, zma-MIR169c, zma-MIR169f, zma-MIR169g, zma-MIR169h, zma-MIR169i, zma-MIR169k, zma-MIR169j, zma-MIR169d, zma-MIR169e, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR166l, zma-MIR166m, zma-MIR393a, zma-MIR408a, zma-MIR156k, zma-MIR160f, zma-MIR2118a, zma-MIR2118b, zma-MIR2118c, zma-MIR2118d, zma-MIR2118e, zma-MIR2118f, zma-MIR2118g, zma-MIR2275a, zma-MIR2275b, zma-MIR2275c, zma-MIR2275d, zma-MIR156l, zma-MIR159e, zma-MIR159f, zma-MIR159g, zma-MIR159h, zma-MIR159i, zma-MIR159j, zma-MIR159k, zma-MIR160g, zma-MIR164e, zma-MIR164f, zma-MIR164g, zma-MIR164h, zma-MIR166n, zma-MIR167j, zma-MIR169l, zma-MIR169m, zma-MIR169n, zma-MIR169o, zma-MIR169p, zma-MIR169q, zma-MIR169r, zma-MIR393b, zma-MIR393c, zma-MIR395d, zma-MIR395e, zma-MIR395f, zma-MIR395g, zma-MIR395h, zma-MIR395i, zma-MIR395j, zma-MIR395k, zma-MIR395l, zma-MIR395m, zma-MIR395n, zma-MIR395o, zma-MIR395p, zma-MIR397a, zma-MIR397b, zma-MIR398a, zma-MIR398b, zma-MIR399g, zma-MIR399h, zma-MIR399i, zma-MIR399j, zma-MIR408b, zma-MIR482, zma-MIR528a, zma-MIR528b, zma-MIR529, zma-MIR827, zma-MIR1432, zma-MIR444a, zma-MIR444b
Moreover, targets of miR156 and miR172 exert positive feedback on the expression of miRNA genes that suppress themselves [61]. [score:7]
The expression of APETALA2 floral homeotic transcription factor, which is required for spikelet meristem determination, is regulated by miR172 [23]. [score:4]
The 12 down-regulated miRNA families were miR156, miR159, miR164, miR166, miR167, miR168, miR169, miR172, miR319, miR393, miR394 and miR397. [score:4]
Previous studies showed that miRNA gene regulation cascades exist and the miR156 pathway acts upstream of the miR172 pathway. [score:2]
MiR172 also regulates the APETALA2-like gene glossy15 to promote vegetative phase transition [24]. [score:1]
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12
[+] score: 18
The expression of the two miRNA families is negatively correlated, that is, miR156 expression is higher in younger tissues while miR172 expression is higher in adult tissues [73]. [score:7]
In contrast, miR172 (Table 1) promotes the transitions between developmental phases and is involved in specifying floral organ identity by downregulating AP2-like target genes, such as GLOSSY15 (GL15) [70] and ZmRAP2.7 [76]– [78]. [score:7]
There are two key miRNA gene families in this pathway, namely miR156 for suppression of and miR172 for promotion of the phase change [71], [72]. [score:3]
117Jung J-H, Seo Y-H, Seo P, Reyes J, Yun J, et al. (2007) The GIGANTEA-regulated microRNA172 mediates photoperiodic flowering independent of CONSTANS in Arabidopsis. [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 4 sentences]
13
[+] score: 11
Other miRNAs from this paper: zma-MIR156d, zma-MIR156f, zma-MIR156g, zma-MIR156b, zma-MIR156c, zma-MIR156e, zma-MIR156a, zma-MIR156h, zma-MIR156i, zma-MIR164a, zma-MIR164d, zma-MIR164b, zma-MIR164c, zma-MIR169a, zma-MIR169b, zma-MIR167a, zma-MIR167b, zma-MIR167d, zma-MIR167c, zma-MIR166a, zma-MIR166h, zma-MIR166e, zma-MIR166i, zma-MIR166f, zma-MIR166g, zma-MIR166b, zma-MIR166c, zma-MIR166d, zma-MIR171a, zma-MIR171b, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, zma-MIR171d, zma-MIR171f, zma-MIR395b, zma-MIR395c, zma-MIR395a, zma-MIR399a, zma-MIR399c, zma-MIR399b, zma-MIR399d, zma-MIR399e, zma-MIR399f, zma-MIR156j, zma-MIR159a, zma-MIR159b, zma-MIR159c, zma-MIR159d, zma-MIR166k, zma-MIR166j, zma-MIR167e, zma-MIR167f, zma-MIR167g, zma-MIR167h, zma-MIR167i, zma-MIR169c, zma-MIR169f, zma-MIR169g, zma-MIR169h, zma-MIR169i, zma-MIR169k, zma-MIR169j, zma-MIR169d, zma-MIR169e, zma-MIR171c, zma-MIR171j, zma-MIR171e, zma-MIR171i, zma-MIR171g, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR166l, zma-MIR166m, zma-MIR171k, zma-MIR171h, zma-MIR393a, zma-MIR156k, zma-MIR156l, zma-MIR159e, zma-MIR159f, zma-MIR159g, zma-MIR159h, zma-MIR159i, zma-MIR159j, zma-MIR159k, zma-MIR164e, zma-MIR164f, zma-MIR164g, zma-MIR164h, zma-MIR166n, zma-MIR167j, zma-MIR169l, zma-MIR169m, zma-MIR169n, zma-MIR169o, zma-MIR169p, zma-MIR169q, zma-MIR169r, zma-MIR171l, zma-MIR171m, zma-MIR171n, zma-MIR390a, zma-MIR393b, zma-MIR393c, zma-MIR395d, zma-MIR395e, zma-MIR395f, zma-MIR395g, zma-MIR395h, zma-MIR395i, zma-MIR395j, zma-MIR395k, zma-MIR395l, zma-MIR395m, zma-MIR395n, zma-MIR395o, zma-MIR395p, zma-MIR398a, zma-MIR398b, zma-MIR399g, zma-MIR399h, zma-MIR399i, zma-MIR399j, zma-MIR528a, zma-MIR528b, zma-MIR529, zma-MIR827, zma-MIR390b
Target genes of miR169, miR171 and miR172 families are transcription factors; and target genes of miR393, miR395 and miR827 families encode transporter related proteins (S2 Table), which are involved in signal transductions. [score:5]
With the exception of miR166, whose expression did not vary across the four stages, and miR169, miR172, miR393, and miR395, which all had relatively more expression at the 6 [th] DAP, the others were consistent with the sequencing data (Fig 3). [score:5]
This group includes 11 conserved and 7 novel miRNA families, such as the miR169, miR171, miR172, miR393, miR395 and miR827 families. [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 3 sentences]
14
[+] score: 11
Other genes involved in reproductive development that are regulated by miRNAs are ARF6 and ARF8 (regulating anther and ovule development, including anther dehiscence, targeted by miR167), homeotic class C genes (defining flower whorl architecture, targeted by miR169), and the APETALA2 homeotic gene and TOE1 (involved in flower whorl architecture, spikelet determination, and flowering time, targeted by miR172; Aukerman and Sakai, 2003; Wu et al., 2006; Cartolano et al., 2007). [score:11]
[1 to 20 of 1 sentences]
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[+] score: 10
Indeed, besides Vgt1, ZmRap2.7 expression is likely to be under control of miR172 (given the presence of miR172 target sequence in ZmRap2.7), one of the most important and evolutionary ancient noncoding microRNAs (Park et al. 2002; Chen 2004), which seems to act by targeting mRNAs both by cleavage and translational repression (Zhu and Helliwell 2011). [score:9]
In our case, a different genotypic architecture for the miR172 family among B73 (five miR172 loci are present in the B73 genome. [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 2 sentences]
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[+] score: 10
Other miRNAs from this paper: osa-MIR156a, osa-MIR156b, osa-MIR156c, osa-MIR156d, osa-MIR156e, osa-MIR156f, osa-MIR156g, osa-MIR156h, osa-MIR156i, osa-MIR156j, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR171a, osa-MIR393a, osa-MIR397a, osa-MIR397b, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR156l, osa-MIR159a, osa-MIR159b, osa-MIR159c, osa-MIR159d, osa-MIR159e, osa-MIR159f, osa-MIR319b, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR168a, osa-MIR168b, osa-MIR169f, osa-MIR171b, osa-MIR171c, osa-MIR171d, osa-MIR171e, osa-MIR171f, osa-MIR171g, osa-MIR172a, osa-MIR172b, osa-MIR172c, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR171h, osa-MIR393b, osa-MIR172d, osa-MIR171i, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, zma-MIR156d, zma-MIR156f, zma-MIR156g, zma-MIR156b, zma-MIR156c, zma-MIR156e, zma-MIR156a, zma-MIR156h, zma-MIR156i, zma-MIR166a, zma-MIR166h, zma-MIR166e, zma-MIR166i, zma-MIR166f, zma-MIR166g, zma-MIR166b, zma-MIR166c, zma-MIR166d, zma-MIR171a, zma-MIR171b, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, zma-MIR171d, zma-MIR171f, zma-MIR156j, zma-MIR159a, zma-MIR159b, zma-MIR159c, zma-MIR159d, zma-MIR319b, zma-MIR166k, zma-MIR166j, zma-MIR168a, zma-MIR168b, zma-MIR169f, zma-MIR171c, zma-MIR171j, zma-MIR171e, zma-MIR171i, zma-MIR171g, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR166l, zma-MIR166m, zma-MIR171k, zma-MIR171h, zma-MIR393a, zma-MIR156k, osa-MIR529a, tae-MIR159a, tae-MIR159b, tae-MIR171a, tae-MIR1120a, osa-MIR1430, zma-MIR156l, zma-MIR159e, zma-MIR159f, zma-MIR159g, zma-MIR159h, zma-MIR159i, zma-MIR159j, zma-MIR159k, zma-MIR166n, zma-MIR171l, zma-MIR171m, zma-MIR171n, zma-MIR393b, zma-MIR393c, zma-MIR397a, zma-MIR397b, hvu-MIR156a, tae-MIR156, hvu-MIR159b, hvu-MIR159a, hvu-MIR166a, hvu-MIR168, hvu-MIR171, hvu-MIR397a, tae-MIR171b, hvu-MIR1120, hvu-MIR166b, osa-MIR3981, hvu-MIR166c, tae-MIR1120b, tae-MIR397, tae-MIR1120c, hvu-MIR397b, hvu-MIR156b
However, there are examples of translation suppression without mRNA cleavage, as has been shown for the ath-miR172-triggered downregulation of APETALA2 expression level [29]. [score:10]
[1 to 20 of 1 sentences]
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[+] score: 9
Among the miRNAs tested, miR172 seems of particular interest since it supports the transition of the leaf from juvenile to adult phase in maize by down -regulating a negative regulator of that transition [47]. [score:3]
The miRNAs studied were expressed at strikingly different levels, from very low (miR172) to very high (miR164, miR168). [score:3]
A note of caution is in order here, since in our study miR172 was quantitated in the middle part of a fully developed leaf while [ibid. ] [score:1]
The size of PCR products obtained on maize RNA preparations was checked by electrophoresis in 5 % agarose, and additionally for zma-MIR164 and zma-MIR172 the products were cloned and sequenced. [score:1]
Thus, the decrease of miR172 level found in our study in S68911 would suggest an arrest of this transition by the cold. [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 5 sentences]
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[+] score: 8
During gametophyte and early seed development, for example, miR172 targets several APETALA2-like transcription factors, thus controlling seed size and yield; ap2 loss-of-function causes an increase of seed weight (Jofuku et al., 2005; Tang et al., 2012). [score:4]
The sequential action of miR156 and miR172 regulates developmental timing in Arabidopsis. [score:3]
The miR172- AP2 interaction is conserved between Arabidopsis and maize (Wang et al., 2005). [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 3 sentences]
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[+] score: 6
Other miRNAs from this paper: zma-MIR156d, zma-MIR156f, zma-MIR156g, zma-MIR156b, zma-MIR156c, zma-MIR156e, zma-MIR156a, zma-MIR156h, zma-MIR156i, zma-MIR160a, zma-MIR160c, zma-MIR160d, zma-MIR160b, zma-MIR164a, zma-MIR164d, zma-MIR164b, zma-MIR164c, zma-MIR169a, zma-MIR169b, zma-MIR160e, zma-MIR166a, zma-MIR166h, zma-MIR166e, zma-MIR166i, zma-MIR166f, zma-MIR166g, zma-MIR166b, zma-MIR166c, zma-MIR166d, zma-MIR171a, zma-MIR171b, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, zma-MIR171d, zma-MIR171f, zma-MIR395b, zma-MIR395c, zma-MIR395a, zma-MIR396b, zma-MIR396a, zma-MIR399a, zma-MIR399c, zma-MIR399b, zma-MIR399d, zma-MIR399e, zma-MIR399f, zma-MIR156j, zma-MIR159a, zma-MIR159b, zma-MIR159c, zma-MIR159d, zma-MIR166k, zma-MIR166j, zma-MIR168a, zma-MIR168b, zma-MIR169c, zma-MIR169f, zma-MIR169g, zma-MIR169h, zma-MIR169i, zma-MIR169k, zma-MIR169j, zma-MIR169d, zma-MIR169e, zma-MIR171c, zma-MIR171j, zma-MIR171e, zma-MIR171i, zma-MIR171g, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR166l, zma-MIR166m, zma-MIR171k, zma-MIR171h, zma-MIR393a, zma-MIR156k, zma-MIR160f, zma-MIR396c, zma-MIR396d, zma-MIR2118a, zma-MIR2118b, zma-MIR2118c, zma-MIR2118d, zma-MIR2118e, zma-MIR2118f, zma-MIR2118g, zma-MIR2275a, zma-MIR2275b, zma-MIR2275c, zma-MIR2275d, zma-MIR156l, zma-MIR159e, zma-MIR159f, zma-MIR159g, zma-MIR159h, zma-MIR159i, zma-MIR159j, zma-MIR159k, zma-MIR160g, zma-MIR164e, zma-MIR164f, zma-MIR164g, zma-MIR164h, zma-MIR166n, zma-MIR169l, zma-MIR169m, zma-MIR169n, zma-MIR169o, zma-MIR169p, zma-MIR169q, zma-MIR169r, zma-MIR171l, zma-MIR171m, zma-MIR171n, zma-MIR390a, zma-MIR393b, zma-MIR393c, zma-MIR395d, zma-MIR395e, zma-MIR395f, zma-MIR395g, zma-MIR395h, zma-MIR395i, zma-MIR395j, zma-MIR395k, zma-MIR395l, zma-MIR395m, zma-MIR395n, zma-MIR395o, zma-MIR395p, zma-MIR396e, zma-MIR396f, zma-MIR396g, zma-MIR396h, zma-MIR399g, zma-MIR399h, zma-MIR399i, zma-MIR399j, zma-MIR529, zma-MIR390b
The expression of a class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip III) protein that functions in asymmetrical leaf development and that of a floral meristem transcription factor, APETALA2, responsible for meristem identity were found to be targeted by miR166 and miR172, respectively (Juarez et al., 2004). [score:6]
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[+] score: 5
Other miRNAs from this paper: osa-MIR156a, osa-MIR156b, osa-MIR156c, osa-MIR156d, osa-MIR156e, osa-MIR156f, osa-MIR156g, osa-MIR156h, osa-MIR156i, osa-MIR156j, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR171a, osa-MIR393a, osa-MIR395b, osa-MIR395d, osa-MIR395e, osa-MIR395g, osa-MIR395h, osa-MIR395i, osa-MIR395j, osa-MIR395k, osa-MIR395l, osa-MIR395s, osa-MIR395t, osa-MIR395c, osa-MIR395a, osa-MIR395f, osa-MIR395u, osa-MIR396a, osa-MIR396b, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR156l, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR168a, osa-MIR172a, osa-MIR172b, osa-MIR172c, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR393b, osa-MIR408, osa-MIR172d, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, zma-MIR156d, zma-MIR156f, zma-MIR156g, zma-MIR156b, zma-MIR156c, zma-MIR156e, zma-MIR156a, zma-MIR156h, zma-MIR156i, zma-MIR166a, zma-MIR166h, zma-MIR166e, zma-MIR166i, zma-MIR166f, zma-MIR166g, zma-MIR166b, zma-MIR166c, zma-MIR166d, zma-MIR171a, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, zma-MIR395b, zma-MIR395c, zma-MIR395a, zma-MIR396b, zma-MIR396a, zma-MIR156j, zma-MIR166k, zma-MIR166j, zma-MIR168a, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR166l, zma-MIR166m, zma-MIR393a, zma-MIR408a, zma-MIR156k, osa-MIR395m, osa-MIR395n, osa-MIR395o, osa-MIR395p, osa-MIR395q, osa-MIR395v, osa-MIR395w, osa-MIR395r, osa-MIR1432, zma-MIR156l, zma-MIR166n, zma-MIR393b, zma-MIR393c, zma-MIR395d, zma-MIR395e, zma-MIR395f, zma-MIR395g, zma-MIR395h, zma-MIR395i, zma-MIR395j, zma-MIR395k, zma-MIR395l, zma-MIR395m, zma-MIR395n, zma-MIR395o, zma-MIR395p, zma-MIR408b, zma-MIR482, zma-MIR1432, osa-MIR395x, osa-MIR395y
The miR172 was reported to target APETALA2 floral homeotic transcription factor that is required for spikelet meristem determination [28]. [score:3]
Also, miR172 functions in promoting vegetative phase transition by regulating the APETALA2-like gene glossy15 [29]. [score:2]
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[+] score: 5
Moreover, only 2 lncRNAs, namely the precursors of miR167j and miR172c, exhibited consistent expression changes compared with the RNA-seq data. [score:2]
RT-qPCR also confirmed that miR167j and miR172c precursor lncRNAs participate in maize drought-stress responses. [score:1]
In this study, 8 out of the 664 drought-responsive lncRNAs were identified as precursors of miR167j, miR169d, miR169h, miR172c, miR399b, miR399e and miR827. [score:1]
Therefore, these results suggest that miR167j and miR172c precursor lncRNAs could be responsive to drought stress. [score:1]
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[+] score: 5
Moreover, post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs and their targets was found to regulate panicle branching (Wang L. et al., 2015), as demonstrated by the loss of function of maize miR172 which caused a loss of spikelet determinacy and an excessive number of branches (Chuck et al., 2007). [score:5]
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[+] score: 4
Other miRNAs from this paper: osa-MIR156a, osa-MIR156b, osa-MIR156c, osa-MIR156d, osa-MIR156e, osa-MIR156f, osa-MIR156g, osa-MIR156h, osa-MIR156i, osa-MIR156j, osa-MIR160a, osa-MIR160b, osa-MIR160c, osa-MIR160d, osa-MIR164a, osa-MIR164b, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR167a, osa-MIR167b, osa-MIR167c, osa-MIR169a, osa-MIR396a, osa-MIR396b, osa-MIR396c, osa-MIR397a, osa-MIR397b, osa-MIR398a, osa-MIR398b, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR156l, osa-MIR159a, osa-MIR159b, osa-MIR159c, osa-MIR159d, osa-MIR159e, osa-MIR159f, osa-MIR160e, osa-MIR160f, osa-MIR164c, osa-MIR164d, osa-MIR164e, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR167d, osa-MIR167e, osa-MIR167f, osa-MIR167g, osa-MIR167h, osa-MIR167i, osa-MIR168a, osa-MIR168b, osa-MIR169b, osa-MIR169c, osa-MIR169d, osa-MIR169e, osa-MIR169f, osa-MIR169g, osa-MIR169h, osa-MIR169i, osa-MIR169j, osa-MIR169k, osa-MIR169l, osa-MIR169m, osa-MIR169n, osa-MIR169o, osa-MIR169p, osa-MIR169q, osa-MIR171b, osa-MIR172a, osa-MIR172b, osa-MIR172c, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR172d, osa-MIR167j, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, osa-MIR164f, zma-MIR156d, zma-MIR156f, zma-MIR156g, zma-MIR156b, zma-MIR156c, zma-MIR156e, zma-MIR156a, zma-MIR156h, zma-MIR156i, zma-MIR160a, zma-MIR160c, zma-MIR160d, zma-MIR160b, zma-MIR164a, zma-MIR164d, zma-MIR164b, zma-MIR164c, zma-MIR169a, zma-MIR169b, zma-MIR167a, zma-MIR167b, zma-MIR167d, zma-MIR167c, zma-MIR160e, zma-MIR166a, zma-MIR166h, zma-MIR166e, zma-MIR166i, zma-MIR166f, zma-MIR166g, zma-MIR166b, zma-MIR166c, zma-MIR166d, zma-MIR171b, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, osa-MIR396e, zma-MIR396b, zma-MIR396a, zma-MIR156j, zma-MIR159a, zma-MIR159b, zma-MIR159c, zma-MIR159d, zma-MIR166k, zma-MIR166j, zma-MIR167e, zma-MIR167f, zma-MIR167g, zma-MIR167h, zma-MIR167i, zma-MIR168a, zma-MIR168b, zma-MIR169c, zma-MIR169f, zma-MIR169g, zma-MIR169h, zma-MIR169i, zma-MIR169k, zma-MIR169j, zma-MIR169d, zma-MIR169e, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR166l, zma-MIR166m, zma-MIR156k, zma-MIR160f, tae-MIR159a, tae-MIR159b, tae-MIR160, tae-MIR164, tae-MIR167a, tae-MIR1127a, osa-MIR169r, osa-MIR396f, zma-MIR396c, zma-MIR396d, osa-MIR2275a, osa-MIR2275b, zma-MIR2275a, zma-MIR2275b, zma-MIR2275c, zma-MIR2275d, osa-MIR396g, osa-MIR396h, osa-MIR396d, zma-MIR156l, zma-MIR159e, zma-MIR159f, zma-MIR159g, zma-MIR159h, zma-MIR159i, zma-MIR159j, zma-MIR159k, zma-MIR160g, zma-MIR164e, zma-MIR164f, zma-MIR164g, zma-MIR164h, zma-MIR166n, zma-MIR167j, zma-MIR169l, zma-MIR169m, zma-MIR169n, zma-MIR169o, zma-MIR169p, zma-MIR169q, zma-MIR169r, zma-MIR396e, zma-MIR396f, zma-MIR396g, zma-MIR396h, zma-MIR397a, zma-MIR397b, zma-MIR398a, zma-MIR398b, hvu-MIR156a, tae-MIR156, hvu-MIR159b, hvu-MIR159a, hvu-MIR166a, tae-MIR167b, hvu-MIR168, hvu-MIR169, tae-MIR169, hvu-MIR397a, tae-MIR398, tae-MIR171b, hvu-MIR166b, hvu-MIR166c, osa-MIR2275c, osa-MIR2275d, tae-MIR1122b, tae-MIR9653a, tae-MIR9654a, tae-MIR9656, tae-MIR9657a, tae-MIR9659, tae-MIR9660, tae-MIR1127b, tae-MIR9661, tae-MIR396, tae-MIR9665, tae-MIR2275, tae-MIR9667, tae-MIR167c, tae-MIR1120b, tae-MIR397, tae-MIR1130b, tae-MIR5384, tae-MIR9675, tae-MIR1120c, tae-MIR9679, tae-MIR9657b, hvu-MIR397b, hvu-MIR156b, tae-MIR9653b
Of the 15 known miRNA families, 8 (miR396, miR168, miR156, miR172, miR159, miR398, miR1318 and miR167) showed different levels of preferential expression in wheat flag leaves, with the logarithm of the fold changes ranged from 0.5 to 5.2 as well as more than those in the developing seeds (Figure  3a, Table  2). [score:3]
The highest read abundance (approximately 238,000 RPM) was detected in the miR168 family and was 3.8 to 78 times more abundant than the other miRNA families, including miR156, miR166, miR167 and miR172, whose abundance ranged from about 2,900 RPM to 62,000 RPM (Table  2). [score:1]
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[+] score: 4
The target of miR172 is APETALA2 (AP2) (Karlova et al., 2013), which is a negative regulator of tomato fruit ripening (Chung et al., 2010; Karlova et al., 2011). [score:4]
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[+] score: 4
RAP2.7 is repressed by miR172, which binds to its mRNA, hence preventing translation in the adult phase (Zhu and Halliwell, 2011; Higgins et al. 2010; Aukerman & Sakai, 2003). [score:3]
Jung J. H., Seo Y. H., Seo P. J., Reyes J. L., Yun J., Chua N. H. & Park C. M. (2007) The GIGANTEA regulated microRNA172 mediates photoperiodic flowering independent of CONSTANS in Arabidopsis. [score:1]
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[+] score: 4
Other miRNAs from this paper: zma-MIR156d, zma-MIR156f, zma-MIR156g, zma-MIR156b, zma-MIR156c, zma-MIR156e, zma-MIR156a, zma-MIR156h, zma-MIR156i, zma-MIR160a, zma-MIR160c, zma-MIR160d, zma-MIR160b, zma-MIR164a, zma-MIR164d, zma-MIR164b, zma-MIR164c, zma-MIR169a, zma-MIR169b, zma-MIR167a, zma-MIR167b, zma-MIR167d, zma-MIR167c, zma-MIR160e, zma-MIR166a, zma-MIR166h, zma-MIR166e, zma-MIR166i, zma-MIR166f, zma-MIR166g, zma-MIR166b, zma-MIR166c, zma-MIR166d, zma-MIR171a, zma-MIR171b, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, zma-MIR171d, zma-MIR171f, zma-MIR395b, zma-MIR395c, zma-MIR395a, zma-MIR396b, zma-MIR396a, zma-MIR399a, zma-MIR399c, zma-MIR399b, zma-MIR399d, zma-MIR399e, zma-MIR399f, zma-MIR156j, zma-MIR159a, zma-MIR159b, zma-MIR159c, zma-MIR159d, zma-MIR319a, zma-MIR319c, zma-MIR319b, zma-MIR319d, zma-MIR166k, zma-MIR166j, zma-MIR167e, zma-MIR167f, zma-MIR167g, zma-MIR167h, zma-MIR167i, zma-MIR168a, zma-MIR168b, zma-MIR169c, zma-MIR169f, zma-MIR169g, zma-MIR169h, zma-MIR169i, zma-MIR169k, zma-MIR169j, zma-MIR169d, zma-MIR169e, zma-MIR171c, zma-MIR171j, zma-MIR171e, zma-MIR171i, zma-MIR171g, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR166l, zma-MIR166m, zma-MIR171k, zma-MIR171h, zma-MIR408a, zma-MIR156k, zma-MIR160f, zma-MIR396c, zma-MIR396d, zma-MIR156l, zma-MIR159e, zma-MIR159f, zma-MIR159g, zma-MIR159h, zma-MIR159i, zma-MIR159j, zma-MIR159k, zma-MIR160g, zma-MIR164e, zma-MIR164f, zma-MIR164g, zma-MIR164h, zma-MIR166n, zma-MIR167j, zma-MIR169l, zma-MIR169m, zma-MIR169n, zma-MIR169o, zma-MIR169p, zma-MIR169q, zma-MIR169r, zma-MIR171l, zma-MIR171m, zma-MIR171n, zma-MIR395d, zma-MIR395e, zma-MIR395f, zma-MIR395g, zma-MIR395h, zma-MIR395i, zma-MIR395j, zma-MIR395k, zma-MIR395l, zma-MIR395m, zma-MIR395n, zma-MIR395o, zma-MIR395p, zma-MIR396e, zma-MIR396f, zma-MIR396g, zma-MIR396h, zma-MIR399g, zma-MIR399h, zma-MIR399i, zma-MIR399j, zma-MIR408b, zma-MIR1432
Naqvi AR Haq QM Mukherjee SK 2010 MicroRNA profiling of tomato leaf curl new delhi virus (tolcndv) infected tomato leaves indicates that deregulation of mir159/319 and mir172 might be linked with leaf curl disease. [score:4]
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[+] score: 3
Other miRNAs from this paper: zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, zma-MIR172e
The ts4 encodes a mir172 microRNA that controls sex determination and meristem cell fate by targeting Ts6/ indeterminate spikelet1 (ids1) [39]. [score:3]
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[+] score: 3
Other miRNAs from this paper: zma-MIR156d, zma-MIR156f, zma-MIR156g, zma-MIR156b, zma-MIR156c, zma-MIR156e, zma-MIR156a, zma-MIR156h, zma-MIR156i, zma-MIR160a, zma-MIR160c, zma-MIR160d, zma-MIR160b, zma-MIR164a, zma-MIR164d, zma-MIR164b, zma-MIR164c, zma-MIR169a, zma-MIR169b, zma-MIR167a, zma-MIR167b, zma-MIR167d, zma-MIR167c, zma-MIR160e, zma-MIR166a, zma-MIR166h, zma-MIR166e, zma-MIR166i, zma-MIR166f, zma-MIR166g, zma-MIR166b, zma-MIR166c, zma-MIR166d, zma-MIR171a, zma-MIR171b, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, zma-MIR171d, zma-MIR171f, zma-MIR394a, zma-MIR394b, zma-MIR396b, zma-MIR396a, zma-MIR399a, zma-MIR399c, zma-MIR399b, zma-MIR399d, zma-MIR399e, zma-MIR399f, zma-MIR156j, zma-MIR159a, zma-MIR159b, zma-MIR159c, zma-MIR159d, zma-MIR319a, zma-MIR319c, zma-MIR319b, zma-MIR319d, zma-MIR166k, zma-MIR166j, zma-MIR167e, zma-MIR167f, zma-MIR167g, zma-MIR167h, zma-MIR167i, zma-MIR168a, zma-MIR168b, zma-MIR169c, zma-MIR169f, zma-MIR169g, zma-MIR169h, zma-MIR169i, zma-MIR169k, zma-MIR169j, zma-MIR169d, zma-MIR169e, zma-MIR171c, zma-MIR171j, zma-MIR171e, zma-MIR171i, zma-MIR171g, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR166l, zma-MIR166m, zma-MIR171k, zma-MIR171h, zma-MIR393a, zma-MIR408a, zma-MIR156k, zma-MIR160f, zma-MIR396c, zma-MIR396d, zma-MIR2118a, zma-MIR2118b, zma-MIR2118c, zma-MIR2118d, zma-MIR2118e, zma-MIR2118f, zma-MIR2118g, zma-MIR156l, zma-MIR159e, zma-MIR159f, zma-MIR159g, zma-MIR159h, zma-MIR159i, zma-MIR159j, zma-MIR159k, zma-MIR160g, zma-MIR164e, zma-MIR164f, zma-MIR164g, zma-MIR164h, zma-MIR166n, zma-MIR167j, zma-MIR169l, zma-MIR169m, zma-MIR169n, zma-MIR169o, zma-MIR169p, zma-MIR169q, zma-MIR169r, zma-MIR171l, zma-MIR171m, zma-MIR171n, zma-MIR390a, zma-MIR393b, zma-MIR393c, zma-MIR396e, zma-MIR396f, zma-MIR396g, zma-MIR396h, zma-MIR397a, zma-MIR397b, zma-MIR398a, zma-MIR398b, zma-MIR399g, zma-MIR399h, zma-MIR399i, zma-MIR399j, zma-MIR408b, zma-MIR528a, zma-MIR528b, zma-MIR827, zma-MIR390b, zma-MIR444a, zma-MIR444b
The expression of the APETALA2 (AP2) family of TFs can be dampened by miR172, which affects grain density in barley [20]. [score:3]
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[+] score: 2
Other miRNAs from this paper: zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, zma-MIR172e
It is of interest that a MIR172 family member (TS4) can negatively regulate both IDS1 and SID1 [25], [26]. [score:2]
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[+] score: 2
59Schwab R (2012b) Roles of miR156 and miR172 in Reproductive Development. [score:2]
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[+] score: 2
Jung JH Seo PJ Kang SK Park CM miR172 signals are incorporated into the miR156 signaling pathway at the SPL3/4/5 genes in Arabidopsis developmental transitionsPlant Mol. [score:2]
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[+] score: 2
MiR172 targets several APETALA2 (AP2) -like transcription factors that control seed mass and yield [21]. [score:2]
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[+] score: 2
GI has multiple roles, including directly interacting with miR172 to control phase change independent of photoperiod (Jung et al. 2007) and with CONSTANS (CO) in the main photoperiodic flowering time pathway (Hayama et al. 2003). [score:2]
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[+] score: 2
Likewise, the miR172-AP2-1 node acts as a key regulator of nitrogen fixation in the symbiotic relationship of Phaseolus vulgaris– Rhizobium etli (Nova-Franco et al., 2015). [score:2]
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[+] score: 1
0125800.g002 Fig 2 Six novel maize miRNAs (miRt4, miRt13, miRt15, miRt17 and miRt21, miRt28) and six conserved miRNAs (miR156, miR162, miR172, miR393, miR396 and miR408) were chosen to verify the sequencing results via the qRT-PCR analysis. [score:1]
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36
[+] score: 1
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR156a, ath-MIR156b, ath-MIR156c, ath-MIR156d, ath-MIR156e, ath-MIR156f, ath-MIR159a, ath-MIR160a, ath-MIR160b, ath-MIR160c, ath-MIR162a, ath-MIR162b, ath-MIR164a, ath-MIR164b, ath-MIR166a, ath-MIR166b, ath-MIR166c, ath-MIR166d, ath-MIR166e, ath-MIR166f, ath-MIR166g, ath-MIR167a, ath-MIR167b, ath-MIR169a, ath-MIR171a, ath-MIR172a, ath-MIR172b, ath-MIR159b, osa-MIR156a, osa-MIR156b, osa-MIR156c, osa-MIR156d, osa-MIR156e, osa-MIR156f, osa-MIR156g, osa-MIR156h, osa-MIR156i, osa-MIR156j, osa-MIR160a, osa-MIR160b, osa-MIR160c, osa-MIR160d, osa-MIR162a, osa-MIR164a, osa-MIR164b, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR167a, osa-MIR167b, osa-MIR167c, osa-MIR169a, osa-MIR171a, ath-MIR167d, ath-MIR169b, ath-MIR169c, ath-MIR169d, ath-MIR169e, ath-MIR169f, ath-MIR169g, ath-MIR169h, ath-MIR169i, ath-MIR169j, ath-MIR169k, ath-MIR169l, ath-MIR169m, ath-MIR169n, ath-MIR171b, ath-MIR171c, ath-MIR172c, ath-MIR172d, ath-MIR393a, ath-MIR393b, ath-MIR394a, ath-MIR394b, ath-MIR395a, ath-MIR395b, ath-MIR395c, ath-MIR395d, ath-MIR395e, ath-MIR395f, osa-MIR393a, osa-MIR394, osa-MIR395b, osa-MIR395d, osa-MIR395e, osa-MIR395g, osa-MIR395h, osa-MIR395i, osa-MIR395j, osa-MIR395k, osa-MIR395l, osa-MIR395s, osa-MIR395t, osa-MIR395c, osa-MIR395a, osa-MIR395f, osa-MIR395u, ath-MIR156g, ath-MIR156h, ath-MIR159c, ath-MIR164c, ath-MIR167c, ath-MIR172e, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR156l, osa-MIR159a, osa-MIR159b, osa-MIR159c, osa-MIR159d, osa-MIR159e, osa-MIR159f, osa-MIR160e, osa-MIR160f, osa-MIR162b, osa-MIR164c, osa-MIR164d, osa-MIR164e, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR167d, osa-MIR167e, osa-MIR167f, osa-MIR167g, osa-MIR167h, osa-MIR167i, osa-MIR169b, osa-MIR169c, osa-MIR169d, osa-MIR169e, osa-MIR169f, osa-MIR169g, osa-MIR169h, osa-MIR169i, osa-MIR169j, osa-MIR169k, osa-MIR169l, osa-MIR169m, osa-MIR169n, osa-MIR169o, osa-MIR169p, osa-MIR169q, osa-MIR171b, osa-MIR171c, osa-MIR171d, osa-MIR171e, osa-MIR171f, osa-MIR171g, osa-MIR172a, osa-MIR172b, osa-MIR172c, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR171h, osa-MIR393b, osa-MIR172d, osa-MIR171i, osa-MIR167j, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, osa-MIR164f, zma-MIR156d, zma-MIR156f, zma-MIR156g, zma-MIR156b, zma-MIR156c, zma-MIR156e, zma-MIR156a, zma-MIR156h, zma-MIR156i, zma-MIR160a, zma-MIR160c, zma-MIR160d, zma-MIR160b, zma-MIR164a, zma-MIR164d, zma-MIR164b, zma-MIR164c, zma-MIR169a, zma-MIR169b, zma-MIR167a, zma-MIR167b, zma-MIR167d, zma-MIR167c, zma-MIR160e, zma-MIR166a, zma-MIR162, zma-MIR166h, zma-MIR166e, zma-MIR166i, zma-MIR166f, zma-MIR166g, zma-MIR166b, zma-MIR166c, zma-MIR166d, zma-MIR171a, zma-MIR171b, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, zma-MIR171d, zma-MIR171f, zma-MIR394a, zma-MIR394b, zma-MIR395b, zma-MIR395c, zma-MIR395a, zma-MIR156j, zma-MIR159a, zma-MIR159b, zma-MIR159c, zma-MIR159d, zma-MIR166k, zma-MIR166j, zma-MIR167e, zma-MIR167f, zma-MIR167g, zma-MIR167h, zma-MIR167i, zma-MIR169c, zma-MIR169f, zma-MIR169g, zma-MIR169h, zma-MIR169i, zma-MIR169k, zma-MIR169j, zma-MIR169d, zma-MIR169e, zma-MIR171c, zma-MIR171j, zma-MIR171e, zma-MIR171i, zma-MIR171g, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR166l, zma-MIR166m, zma-MIR171k, zma-MIR171h, zma-MIR393a, zma-MIR156k, zma-MIR160f, osa-MIR528, osa-MIR529a, osa-MIR395m, osa-MIR395n, osa-MIR395o, osa-MIR395p, osa-MIR395q, osa-MIR395v, osa-MIR395w, osa-MIR395r, ath-MIR827, osa-MIR529b, osa-MIR1432, osa-MIR169r, osa-MIR827, osa-MIR2118a, osa-MIR2118b, osa-MIR2118c, osa-MIR2118d, osa-MIR2118e, osa-MIR2118f, osa-MIR2118g, osa-MIR2118h, osa-MIR2118i, osa-MIR2118j, osa-MIR2118k, osa-MIR2118l, osa-MIR2118m, osa-MIR2118n, osa-MIR2118o, osa-MIR2118p, osa-MIR2118q, osa-MIR2118r, osa-MIR2275a, osa-MIR2275b, zma-MIR2118a, zma-MIR2118b, zma-MIR2118c, zma-MIR2118d, zma-MIR2118e, zma-MIR2118f, zma-MIR2118g, zma-MIR2275a, zma-MIR2275b, zma-MIR2275c, zma-MIR2275d, zma-MIR156l, zma-MIR159e, zma-MIR159f, zma-MIR159g, zma-MIR159h, zma-MIR159i, zma-MIR159j, zma-MIR159k, zma-MIR160g, zma-MIR164e, zma-MIR164f, zma-MIR164g, zma-MIR164h, zma-MIR166n, zma-MIR167j, zma-MIR169l, zma-MIR169m, zma-MIR169n, zma-MIR169o, zma-MIR169p, zma-MIR169q, zma-MIR169r, zma-MIR171l, zma-MIR171m, zma-MIR171n, zma-MIR393b, zma-MIR393c, zma-MIR395d, zma-MIR395e, zma-MIR395f, zma-MIR395g, zma-MIR395h, zma-MIR395i, zma-MIR395j, zma-MIR395k, zma-MIR395l, zma-MIR395m, zma-MIR395n, zma-MIR395o, zma-MIR395p, zma-MIR482, zma-MIR528a, zma-MIR528b, zma-MIR529, zma-MIR827, zma-MIR1432, osa-MIR395x, osa-MIR395y, osa-MIR2275c, osa-MIR2275d, ath-MIR156i, ath-MIR156j
The abundance of zma-miR172 was extremely low compared to that of zma-miR156 in our dataset, which was consistent with previous finding that these two miRNAs are conversely regulated. [score:1]
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[+] score: 1
While 80% of these miRNA families were identified in both libraries, miR172, miR397, miR529 and miR827 were found only in the inoculated library, and miR3630 was present only in the control library. [score:1]
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