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29 publications mentioning ath-MIR396a

Open access articles that are associated with the species Arabidopsis thaliana and mention the gene name MIR396a. Click the [+] symbols to view sentences that include the gene name, or the word cloud on the right for a summary.

1
[+] score: 410
Furthermore, GRF2 [22] and bHLH74 transgenes harboring silent mutations in their miRNA target sites affect leaf development, suggesting that the regulation of both type of targets by miR396 is important for Arabidopsis development. [score:9]
MiR396 contributes to the spatio-temporal expression of bHLH74 and GRF2 We then compared the regulation of the new bHLH74 target by miR396 to the regulation of an ancient GRF target, such as GRF2. [score:8]
Suboptimal regulation of miR396 targets in Arabidopsis thaliana The previous results show that a single miR396 gradient generates opposing gradients of expression for its targets (Figure 4), and that a perfect match between miR396 and the GRFs increase the in vivo efficiency of the miRNA (Figure 6). [score:8]
A miR396-resistant GRF2 reporter, with mutations in the target site, was expressed in a broader domain, highlighting the activity of the miRNA in shaping GRF2 expression (Figure 4B) [22]. [score:8]
These results demonstrate that high levels of bHLH74 can be toxic for normal plant development and that miR396 can down-regulate bHLH74 expression levels in vivo. [score:7]
Although we cannot disregard the possibility of the existence of other regulatory levels affecting bHLH74 expression such as post-translational modifications, which are not detected by our sensors, the results show that miR396 contributes to the spatio-temporal regulation of bHLH74. [score:7]
Finally, we prepared transgenic plants expressing an artificial target mimic directed against miR396 (MIM396) to decrease the endogenous miRNA activity. [score:6]
Interestingly, the addition of a base in the Arabidopsis miR396 selectively improves its efficiency towards the GRFs at the expense of losing activity towards bHLH74, suggesting that bulges in miRNA/target pairs could be used for differential target regulation in miRNA networks. [score:6]
While the overexpression of the endogenous miR396 significantly down-regulated bHLH74 mRNA (approximately 90%), the monocot-specific version had only a minor effect (Figure 6I). [score:6]
Therefore, we studied additional and potential miR396 targets from several points of view to identify those targets whose regulation would be more likely to have biological importance (Figure 1B). [score:6]
Regulation of bHLH74 by miR396The up-regulation of bHLH74 in miR396 -deficient plants and its conservation in a group of related species suggested that miR396 regulation might have a biological significance. [score:6]
However, the wild-type bHLH74 was significantly down-regulated more than ten times in older organs, in agreement with the activation of miR396 expression (Figure 4E). [score:6]
We then compared the regulation of the new bHLH74 target by miR396 to the regulation of an ancient GRF target, such as GRF2. [score:6]
Another potential level of complexity in the regulation of different targets by miR396 might arise from the miRNA expression gradient in a developing leaf, which extends from the distal part of the organ towards its base. [score:6]
A wild-type reporter for GRF2 containing the upstream regulatory region as well as the first four exons harboring the miR396 target site was expressed in young leaves and in proximo-distal gradient along the longitudinal axis of the organ (Figure 4B) [22]. [score:6]
Multiple target regulation by miR396 in Arabidopsis thaliana MiR396 is expressed at low levels in the meristem and leaf primordia, and then it steadily accumulates as leaves develop [22]. [score:6]
The fact that bHLH74 regulation by miR396 is important for Arabidopsis development suggests that the miR396 regulatory network could be relatively dynamic at least with respect to the acquisition of new targets. [score:6]
The previous results show that a single miR396 gradient generates opposing gradients of expression for its targets (Figure 4), and that a perfect match between miR396 and the GRFs increase the in vivo efficiency of the miRNA (Figure 6). [score:5]
Ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis miR396 mature sequence from the MIR319a precursor caused smaller and lanceolated leaves (Figure 6C–6F), in a similar way to the overexpression of the endogenous MIR396 precursor [21], [22]. [score:5]
Transcription factors of the GRF class are the only conserved targets among these species (see Tables S1, S2, S3) [23], and their regulation by miR396 is known to be relevant for Arabidopsis development [22]. [score:5]
This first sensor, which has a functional miR396 -binding site (wtbHLH74-GUS) was strongly expressed in young leaves, especially in the veins, while its expression decreased in older leaves (10 out of 16 independent transgenic plants) (Figure 4C). [score:5]
We began analyzing the existence of additional miR396 targets by searching the rice, poplar and Arabidopsis genomes using empirically-derived miRNA-target rules [16]. [score:5]
While an additional copy of the endogenous miR396 sequence caused a minor impact on leaf development, expression of the monocot miR396 version from the MIR396b promoter affected leaf development in more than 50% of the independent transgenic plants (Figure 6C–6F). [score:5]
The up-regulation of bHLH74 in miR396 -deficient plants and its conservation in a group of related species suggested that miR396 regulation might have a biological significance. [score:5]
Taken together, these results indicate that miR396 has a meaningful impact on the RNA regulation of this new target and that this regulation is quantitatively similar to the one observed in conserved GRFs. [score:5]
However, at the molecular level, we found that At1g10120 was up-regulated two-fold in 35S:MIM396 plants, which was analogous to the increase observed in miR396-regulated GRFs (Figure 1G). [score:5]
Next, two vectors expressing a genomic version of the transcription factor with different sensitivities to miR396, including the endogenous upstream regulatory regions, were constructed. [score:4]
rGRF2-GUS has synonymous mutations in the miR396-target site. [score:4]
Together with previous reports [22], these results show that both types of miR396 targets, namely GRFs and bHLH74, have biological roles during leaf development. [score:4]
Overexpression of the miRNA causes a drastic reduction in cell number, while abolishing the regulation of GRF2 by miR396 promotes a moderate increase in organ size [22]. [score:4]
Next, we decided to analyze whether the bulge present in the miR396- GRF pair plays a role in patterning the expression of GRF2 during leaf development in Arabidopsis. [score:4]
First, we prepared a reporter to follow miR396 expression by fusing the 2 Kb upstream regulatory sequences of MIR396b to a GUS reporter. [score:4]
GRF regulation by miR396 is conserved at least in angiosperms and gymnosperms based on the presence of the small RNA [14], [33] and GRF transcription factors harboring the miR396 target site (Figure 1A). [score:4]
Suboptimal regulation of miR396 targets in Arabidopsis thaliana. [score:4]
rbHLH74-GUS has synonymous mutations in the miR396 target site. [score:4]
MiRNA miR396 regulates GROWTH-REGULATING FACTORs (GRFs) [21], [22], [23], [24], a plant specific family of transcription factors known to be involved in the control of cell proliferation during leaf development [22], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28]. [score:4]
GRF regulation by miR396 can be traced back to at least the gymnosperms based on the existence of GRF transcription factors with a miRNA target site. [score:4]
Analysis of bHLH74 and GRF2 expression patterns revealed that they both shared a temporal component, which is imposed by the accumulation of miR396 during leaf development. [score:4]
In contrast, transcript levels of At5g24660 and GRF5, which is not regulated by miR396, were unaffected by the expression of MIM396 (Figure 1G). [score:4]
These results further support the role of miR396 in the regulation of bHLH74 expression. [score:4]
Multiple target regulation by miR396 in Arabidopsis thaliana. [score:4]
It is plausible, however, that a gross down-regulation of the GRFs under specific conditions or in specific cells, such as the one caused by the monocot miR396 variant, could also be advantageous. [score:4]
For this purpose, we expressed the two versions of miR396 from the MIR319a precursor in Arabidopsis, which has already been shown as an efficient driver of artificial miRNA sequences [51]. [score:3]
These results show that bHLH74 regulation by miR396 might be biologically important for Arabidopsis development. [score:3]
Analysis of miR396 targets. [score:3]
These results further support our previous findings, i. e. the monocot-specific version of miR396, which does not have a bulge in the miRNA-target pair, has a higher activity towards the GRFs than the one from Arabidopsis. [score:3]
Table S5 Expression of different miR396 variants in publicly available small RNA sequencing libraries. [score:3]
Both genes are expressed in young organs as a consequence of miR396 activity. [score:3]
Figure S6Interaction of the bHLH74 target site with (A) Arabidopsis miR396a and (B) the monocot-specific variant (miR396_7-8insG). [score:3]
First, we prepared transgenic plants expressing the wild-type and miR396 resistant gene from the viral CaMV 35S promoter. [score:3]
Small RNA blot showing miR396 levels in control plants (transformed with an empty vector) and transgenic plants expressing Arabidopsis miR396b or miR396_7-8insG displaying an intermediate phenotype (see Figure 6F). [score:3]
Recognition of the GRF target site by miR396 generates a bulge between positions 7 and 8 of the miRNA (Figure 6A). [score:3]
The insertion of one nucleotide in the monocot-specific version of miR396 eliminates this bulge, strengthening the interaction of the miRNA-target pair by 7 kcal/mol (Figure 6A–6B). [score:3]
The second sensor contained silent mutations in the miRNA binding site, which impaired its regulation by miR396 (rbHLH74-GUS). [score:3]
Table S2 Predicted targets of miR396 in poplar. [score:3]
We focused on transgenic plants with a moderate reduction in leaf lamina (∼60%), which was observed in 52% or 38% of the primary transgenic plants expressing the endogenous or the monocot-specific miR396 sequence from the 35S viral promoter, respectively (Figure 6D–6F). [score:3]
The miR396 target site is formed after the splicing of the first two exons. [score:3]
We further expressed both miR396 variants from the endogenous MIR396b promoter. [score:3]
At1g10120 analysis by a modified 5′ RACE-PCR revealed mRNA fragments consistent with a miR396 -guided cleavage (Figure 1D) in agreement with previous results obtained for this gene by genome-wide analysis of miRNA targets [36], [37]. [score:3]
The inset shows a closer look at a developing leaf displaying a miR396 expression gradient. [score:3]
We searched for bHLH74 homologs with a miR396 target site in EST and genome sequence databases of species related to Arabidopsis thaliana. [score:3]
Table S4 Sequences used to analyze the conservation of the miR396 target site. [score:3]
The miR396 target site was modified as indicated below the pictures. [score:3]
The genomic version of the transcription factor containing silent mutations that impaired its regulation by miR396 (bHLH74: rbHLH74) accumulated varied levels of mRNA reaching levels eighty-fold higher than those for the endogenous transcript in the most extreme cases (Figure 2B). [score:3]
It has been proposed that Arabidopsis miR396 contributes to the fine-tuning of GRF expression [22]. [score:3]
The conserved interaction between miR396 and the GRFs has a bulge at position 7–8 of the target site. [score:3]
Table S1Predicted targets of miR396 in Arabidopsis thaliana. [score:3]
1002419.g001 Figure 1Analysis of potential miR396 targets in Arabidopsis thaliana. [score:3]
A red box highlights the miR396 target site and a grey box depicts part of the coding sequence of the bHLH domain. [score:3]
MiR396a and miR396_7-8insG were expressed from the viral 35S (left) and MIR396b (right) promoters. [score:3]
Table S3 Predicted targets of miR396 in rice. [score:3]
To study the importance of bHLH74 regulation by miR396 in more detail, we prepared a version of the gene with mutations that impaired its interaction with the miRNA (rbHLH74). [score:3]
Expression of the monocot-version of miR396 (miR396_7-8insG) caused stronger effects on the leaf lamina (Figure 6C–6F). [score:3]
This reporter was expressed in organs much older than those of the wild-type version highlighting the role of miR396 in restricting its activity to younger organs (12 out of 16 independent transgenic plants) (Figure 4C). [score:3]
While miR396 regulates GRF transcription factors, at least in angiosperms and gymnosperms, this miRNA additionally regulates another transcription factor of the bHLH class but only in Arabidopsis thaliana and closely related species. [score:3]
Analysis of potential miR396 targets in Arabidopsis thaliana. [score:3]
We did not find evidence of bHLH74 homologs with a miR396 target site in more distant species of Arabidopsis thaliana, either looking at syntenic regions of sequenced genomes such as poplar or by BLAST search against EST databases. [score:3]
In contrast, transgenic seedlings with the same phenotype but expressing the monocot-specific miR396 variant displayed only a two-fold increase (Figure 6G). [score:3]
These plants did not have any obvious phenotypic defects, similar to a previously described MIM396 prepared along a collection of target -mimics [12], probably due to remaining miR396 activity. [score:3]
To confirm the expression of the miR396 sequences, we analyzed publicly available deep-sequencing small RNA libraries from several species [29], [33], [45], [46], [47], [48], [49], [50]. [score:3]
MiR396 is expressed at low levels in the meristem and leaf primordia, and then it steadily accumulates as leaves develop [22]. [score:2]
Our observations indicated that the miR396- bHLH74 regulatory module is present in Brassicaceae species. [score:2]
MiR396 coordinates the spatio-temporal expression of bHLH74 and GRF2. [score:2]
This increase was similar to that observed for the miR396-regulated GRFs (see Table S1). [score:2]
MiR396 accumulates with leaf age and restricts the pattern of expression of the GRFs to the proliferative region of the organ [22]. [score:2]
We observed that while miR396 was induced several times during leaf development, both GRF2 and bHLH74 decreased significantly. [score:2]
MiR396 contributes to the spatio-temporal expression of bHLH74 and GRF2. [score:2]
Here, we have further shown that only a GRF2 reporter under suboptimal regulation by the endogenous miR396 can overlap the proliferative region of a developing leaf in Arabidopsis thaliana. [score:2]
We also show that monocot-specific variants of miR396 display an enhanced activity towards the conserved GRF transcription factors, while the sub-optimal regulation of the GRFs by miR396 in Arabidopsis might be important to quantitatively control GRF levels. [score:2]
We then prepared two reporters to follow the regulation of bHLH74 by miR396. [score:2]
Finally, we measured the accumulation of bHLH74 mRNA in transgenic plants expressing the wild-type and miR396 resistant version of bHLH74 at two leaf developmental stages. [score:2]
Analysis of the miR396-regulated gene GRF2 in seedlings with moderated phenotypes revealed a decrease of its mRNA levels to 40% in both types of transgenic plants (Figure 6H). [score:2]
These quantitative measurements are in accordance with the whole-mount GUS stainings, supporting the function of miR396 in the regulation of both types of targets during organ growth (Figure 4A–4D). [score:2]
The results presented here show that the regulation of bHLH74 by miR396 has a meaningful impact on its RNA levels, in a similar way to that observed for the wi dely distributed GRF transcription factors. [score:2]
In neither case did we find an additional bHLH74 homologue that could be potentially regulated by miR396. [score:2]
Regulation of bHLH74 by miR396. [score:2]
We also analyzed the activity of the miR396 variant found in Selaginella, pine and poplar (Figure 4A) and determined that it caused slightly stronger developmental defects than the wild-type precursor (see Figure S7). [score:2]
Interestingly, we observed that the monocot-specific variant was the most abundant miR396 variant in rice, maize and Brachypodium distachyon as judged by deep-sequencing (Figure 5B). [score:1]
The retrotranscription reaction was performed using a stem-loop oligo that matches the three miR396 variants. [score:1]
Interestingly, we observed that the miR396 -binding site of bHLH74 is formed after the splicing of the first two exons (Figure 1H). [score:1]
1002419.g006 Figure 6The monocot-version of miR396 is hyperactive towards the GRFs. [score:1]
Pine and poplar have precursors for both types of mature miR396 species (Figure 5A). [score:1]
Figure S5Small RNA blot of miR396. [score:1]
The addition of an extra nucleotide to this variant causes a bulge to be formed on the miRNA side of the bHLH74/miR396 pair (see Figure S6). [score:1]
These results show that the miR396 monocot variant is more active in vivo. [score:1]
At young stages when miR396 levels are low, bHLH74 was only slightly higher in bHLH74:rbHLH74 than in bHLH74:wtbHLH74 transgenic plants (Figure 4E). [score:1]
Interestingly, variations in the miR396 sequence can be found in different species (miRBase 17.0), such as a base insertion in the 5′ region of the miRNA, which is found only in rice and other monocotyledons [29], [30]. [score:1]
We then performed a RT-qPCR with oligos spanning miR396 cognate sites in several siRNA and miRNA biogenesis mutants (Figure 1F). [score:1]
miR396 sequence is indicated in red. [score:1]
The interaction between miR396 and the GRFs is unusual in plants as it contains a bulge in the 5′ region [22], [23]. [score:1]
Characterization of transgenic plants expressing a miR396-resistant bHLH74. [score:1]
Therefore, this monocot-specific version of miR396 is selectively more efficient towards the GRFs. [score:1]
We found that most small RNAs were detected in vivo, confirming that a complex spectrum of miR396 sequences co-exists in nature (Figure 5B; see Table S5). [score:1]
In contrast, we could only find bHLH74 homologues with miR396 -binding sites in species within the sister families Cleomaceae and Brassicaceae. [score:1]
1002419.g002 Figure 2Characterization of transgenic plants expressing a miR396-resistant bHLH74. [score:1]
A possible explanation to this is that the miR396_7A>G version replaces an interaction between the A-U pair with a stronger G-C pair, causing a concomitant change of more than two kcal/mol in the interaction energy of the miR396/GRF pair (see Figure S7). [score:1]
In Selaginella, miR396 has a G at position 7, while both genes in Arabidopsis encode small RNAs with an A at that position (Figure 5A). [score:1]
Interestingly, the changes observed for the miR396 sequence at position 7–8 are predicted to have an important effect on miRNA activity based on previous biochemical data and mutant analysis [15], [16], [17]. [score:1]
Figure S4 Description of the method used to quantify miR396 variants. [score:1]
As miR396 accumulates with leaf age [22], we expected large differences in bHLH74 mRNA abundance in these samples. [score:1]
Interestingly, there is a miR396 variant with an insertion of a G at position 7–8 of the miRNA (Figure 5A). [score:1]
Variations among miR396 family members in plants. [score:1]
Activity of endogenous miR396 towards different substrates in Arabidopsis thaliana. [score:1]
Analysis of miR396 variants in different species using the miRNA database (miRBase 17.0) indicates that there are, indeed, several variants of miR396 (Figure 5). [score:1]
A black bar in position 8 (highlighted with an asterisk) represents the contribution of the miR396 variants. [score:1]
The monocot-version of miR396 is hyperactive towards the GRFs. [score:1]
MiR396 and miR396_7-8insG levels were concurrently determined in each sample by stem-loop RT-qPCR [53]. [score:1]
In contrast, we did not find any pattern of miR396 activity on At5g24660 (Figure 1E). [score:1]
Note that the differences in mRNA accumulation between bHLH74: rbHLH74 and bHLH74: bHLH74 are smaller in younger developing tissues, where miR396 levels are low (see below). [score:1]
1002419.g007 Figure 7Activity of endogenous miR396 towards different substrates in Arabidopsis thaliana. [score:1]
When considering a single developing organ, miR396 accumulates in the more mature and distal part, with a miRNA gradient proceeding towards the base of the organ. [score:1]
These results are consistent with high levels of endogenous miR396 guiding the cleavage of the wild-type bHLH74 transcript. [score:1]
A scheme of the strategy used for the simultaneous quantification of miR396 and miR396_7-8insG is provided in Figure S4. [score:1]
We then analyzed miR396, GRF2 and bHLH74 transcript levels by RT-qPCR in young and fully-expanded leaves (Figure 4D). [score:1]
Differential activity of miR396 variants. [score:1]
Red arrows indicate predicted miR396 cleavage sites. [score:1]
To test this, we designed another GRF2-GUS reporter where the bulge was eliminated from the interaction with the endogenous miR396, thus generating a nearly perfect pairing (pGRF2-GUS) (Figure 7A; see Table S6). [score:1]
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[+] score: 117
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR396b
Consistent with the gradual miR396 down-regulation observed during infection, most of the miR396 -targeted GRF genes showed increased expression after inoculation with P. cucumerina, albeit with different kinetics and magnitude (Fig. 5c). [score:8]
P. cucumerina inoculation triggers changes in the expression of 1522 genes in wild-type plants 72 hours after inoculation, a time of infection in which the two miR396 family members accumulated at a low level, and 5 out of the 8 miR396 -targeted genes were up-regulated (e. g. GRF1, GRF3, GRF4, GRF7, and GRF8 (Fig. 5c). [score:8]
Whether the observed effect on JA/ET-regulated defense genes is a direct consequence or an indirect effect of miR396/target gene(s) functioning needs to be elucidated. [score:6]
The existence of additional regulatory mechanisms acting in parallel to miR396 -guided target gene expression should not be discarded. [score:6]
Expression of miR396 and miR396 targets upon inoculation with P. cucumerina spores. [score:5]
MiR396 down-regulation and release of its targets sensitize plants to mount a more robust defense response during pathogen infection, a situation that resembles the so called defense priming phenomenon 29. [score:5]
miR396 and GRF expression during fungal infectionThe apparently negative effect of miR396 on resistance to fungal pathogens prompted us to ask whether miR396 and miR396-targets show changes in their accumulation during the normal host response to infection. [score:5]
Increased susceptibility to P. cucumerina caused by MIR396B overexpressionTo determine whether miR396 might have an instructive role in immunity, we overexpressed MIR396B under the control of the CaMV35S promoter. [score:5]
However, RT-qPCR analysis using gene-specific primers flanking the miR396 cleavage site confirmed up-regulation of most of the miR396 -targeted genes in MIM396 plants (Supplementary Figure S6). [score:5]
The present work provides evidence that the transcriptional activity of MIR396 progressively decreases upon fungal perception (inoculation with fungal spores, and treatment with fungal elicitors), while miR396 targets increase in expression. [score:5]
Our functional studies show that miR396 regulation of its transcription factor targets is pivotal within the dynamic response that allows appropriate modulation of plant defense responses. [score:4]
As the miR396-GRF regulatory node is conserved among plant species 46, results here presented will be useful in developing novel strategies for disease resistance in crops at the miRNA level. [score:4]
Whereas interference on miR396 activity increases resistance to pathogen infection, miR396 overexpression results in enhanced susceptibility to infection, thus, supporting that miR396 negatively regulates immunity against fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis. [score:4]
The apparently negative effect of miR396 on resistance to fungal pathogens prompted us to ask whether miR396 and miR396-targets show changes in their accumulation during the normal host response to infection. [score:3]
miR396 and GRF expression during fungal infection. [score:3]
In A. thaliana, miR396 additionally targets the bHLH74 transcription factor gene 43. [score:3]
We have provided evidence that a gradual decrease of miR396 activity, and a concomitant increase of its transcription factor targets, play a central role in immune responses against necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens. [score:3]
To avoid that developmental defects caused by high levels of miR396 expression could confound our observations, we assayed 35Sprom::MIR396B plants that despite accumulating higher levels of miR396, appeared otherwise normal under our growth conditions (Supplementary Fig. S4). [score:3]
To determine whether miR396 might have an instructive role in immunity, we overexpressed MIR396B under the control of the CaMV35S promoter. [score:3]
That plants with constitutively higher miR396 levels are more susceptible to P. cucumerina suggest its targets limit a successful defense against fungal pathogens during host reprogramming. [score:3]
Plants over-accumulating miR396 have been described to show a gradient of phenotypic manifestation that correlates with the reduction of its GRF targets 24. [score:3]
Particularly, chromatin remo deling has emerged as an important factor during defense responses 71, and might well be one of the possible explanations to the lack of constitutive defense response in MIM396 plants derived from higher levels of miR396 -targeted transcription factors. [score:3]
To ascertain whether suppression of miR396 activity broadly confers resistance to other fungal pathogens, we challenged MIM396 plants with B. cinerea, a necrotrophic fungus that causes grey mold in a wide range of hosts 36 as well as F. oxysporum f. sp. [score:3]
Furthermore, we have demonstrated that reduced miR396 activity results in superactivation of defense responses that enables a more successful immune response without interfering with normal growth or development. [score:2]
In conclusion, our results support that in addition to its role in controlling developmental processes, miR396 contributes to the dynamic defense response against necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens. [score:2]
Nucleotide sequencing confirmed the specific amplification of miR396 sequences. [score:1]
Collectively, these results strongly support that impairment of miR396 activity enhances resistance to infection by fungal pathogens with different lifestyles. [score:1]
The values represent changes in the accumulation of miR396a and miR396b (light and dark grey bars, respectively) at the indicated times after inoculation (*P ≤ 0.05; ANOVA test, P. cucumerina-inoculated vs. [score:1]
How to cite this article: Soto-Suárez, M. et al. The Arabidopsis miR396 mediates pathogen -associated molecular pattern-triggered immune responses against fungal pathogens. [score:1]
The finding that reduced miR396 activity contributes to superactivation of defense responses, including H [2]O [2] accumulation and callose deposition, expands our knowledge about the events involved in defense priming. [score:1]
The accumulation of precursor transcripts and mature sequences for each miR396 family member was determined at different times after inoculation with P. cucumerina. [score:1]
Accumulation of mature miR396 sequences was determined by stem-loop reverse transcription quantitative PCR as previously described 25. [score:1]
In A. thaliana, miR396 is encoded by two loci, MIR396A and MIR396B. [score:1]
This is in agreement with the finding that, in the absence of pathogen challenge, a reduction in miR396 function has a low impact on the whole-rosette transcriptome. [score:1]
However, little is known about the miR396 -mediated molecular reprogramming in those different scenarios. [score:1]
Thus, in the absence of pathogen challenges, reduced miR396 activity has only minimal effects on whole-rosette transcriptomes. [score:1]
There was a general and clear reduction in the accumulation of both precursors, pre-miR396a and pre-miR396b, at 24, 48 and 72 hpi (hours post-inoculation), which was paralleled by a delayed decrease in the accumulation of mature miR396a and miR396b (48 and 72 hpi) (Fig. 5a). [score:1]
Distortion of this dynamic pattern by either prematurely reducing or increasing miR396 levels leads to improved performance (MIM396 plants) or heightened susceptibility (35Sprom:MIR396B plants) to pathogen infection. [score:1]
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[+] score: 74
Expression Changes of Drought Associated miRNAs Target Genes under PEG8000 Stress and NaHS Treatment in Arabidopsis We selected ARF8 (target gene of miR167); TIR1, AFB2 and AFB3 (target genes of miR393); GRF1, GRF2 and GRF3 (target genes of miR396); CSD1 and CSD2 (target genes of miR398) to determine possible transcriptional changes of drought -associated miRNA target genes. [score:15]
We selected ARF8 (target gene of miR167); TIR1, AFB2 and AFB3 (target genes of miR393); GRF1, GRF2 and GRF3 (target genes of miR396); CSD1 and CSD2 (target genes of miR398) to determine possible transcriptional changes of drought -associated miRNA target genes. [score:11]
On the other hand, H [2]S is involved in regulating the expression of drought associated miRNAs such as miR167, miR393, miR396 and miR398 and can therefore affect their target gene expressions and so to improve the tolerance of Arabidopsis to drought. [score:8]
Under drought stress, miR167, miR393 and miR396 are upregulated, miR169 is downregulated and miR398 is differentially regulated [17]. [score:8]
Expression of MIR167a, MIR167c, MIR167d, MIR398a, MIR398b and MIR398c transcripts in lcd are significantly lower than WT under PEG8000 treatment while that of MIR393a and MIR396a are higher (Figure 4), which did not match the expression pattern of the miRNA target genes. [score:7]
GRF1, GRF2, GRF3, GRF4, GRF7, GRF8 and GRF9 (targets of miR396) function primarily in leaf development and when overexpressed plants have lower densities of stomata [22]. [score:6]
miR396 targets growth -regulating factor coding genes GRF1, GRF2, GRF3, GRF4, GRF7, GRF8 and GRF9, which play an important role in leaf growth and development [22]. [score:5]
When PEG8000 treated lcd mutants were compared with PEG8000 treated WT, lcd showed a lower expression level of MIR167a, MIR167c, MIR167d, MIR398a, MIR398b and MIR398c and a higher expression level of MIR393a and MIR396a. [score:4]
from qRT-PCR showed elevated expression levels of MIR167a, MIR167c, MIR167d, MIR393a and MIR396a (Figure 4A) and decreased expression levels of MIR398a, MIR398b and MIR398c (Figure 4B) in both lcd and WT under PEG8000 treatment compared with non -treated plants. [score:4]
Effect of H [2]S on the Drought Associated miRNAs Expression in WT SeedlingTo further validate the above conclusions, we treated WT seedlings with 50 µmol L [−1] NaHS for 0, 3, 6, 12 h. The results showed that exogenous H [2]S induced a common pattern of transcript accumulation of MIR167a, MIR167c, MIR167d, MIR393a and MIR396a as time progressed (Figure 3A). [score:3]
The results showed an accumulation of MIR167a, MIR167c, MIR167d, MIR393a and MIR396a transcripts as time progressed until they reached a maximum at 2 h into the treatment, after which they started decreasing (Figure 2A). [score:1]
In Arabidopsis, miR156, miR158, miR159, miR165, miR167, miR168, miR169, miR171, miR319, miR393, miR394 and miR396 are drought-responsive. [score:1]
To further validate the above conclusions, we treated WT seedlings with 50 µmol L [−1] NaHS for 0, 3, 6, 12 h. The results showed that exogenous H [2]S induced a common pattern of transcript accumulation of MIR167a, MIR167c, MIR167d, MIR393a and MIR396a as time progressed (Figure 3A). [score:1]
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4
[+] score: 62
In both callus and leaf tissues, four miRNAs (miR156, miR169, miR398 and miR408) were up-regulated, two miRNAs (miR158, and miR393) were down-regulated with two other miRNAs (miR159 and miR396) only found in the callus tissue (Figure  5A, B). [score:7]
miR396 was up-regulated in the callus tissue and down-regulated in the leaf tissue according to the H-T sequencing results (Tables  1 and 2). [score:7]
Consequently, the qPCR showed that the GRF-4, target of miR396, was significantly up-regulated in both callus and leaf tissues (Figure  6A, B). [score:6]
In the callus tissue two miRNAs (miR396 and miR399) and their corresponding target genes (growth regulating factor 4 and ubiquitin-protein ligase respectively) showed no agreement in their expression profile as expected. [score:6]
In contrast, qPCR revealed a down-regulation of miR396 in the callus tissue and no differential expression in the leaf tissue (Figure  5A, B). [score:6]
Another LPS-responsive, stress-regulated miRNA identified in this study is miR396, known to target growth regulating factors (GRFs) [58, 59]. [score:5]
In this regard, the increase of the expression of the GRF-4 by the reduction of miR396 expression suggests the involvement of this GRF in the A. thaliana response to the LPS elicitation. [score:5]
To validate the sequencing results with the bioinformatics -based analysis and based on their key function in gene regulation, the following mature miRNA were selected for expression profile analysis: miR156, mi158, miR159, miR169, miR393, miR396, miR398, miR399 and miR408. [score:4]
The expression data was then compared against the H-T sequencing data analysis which revealed that five (miR156, miR169, miR398, miR399 and miR408) of the nine miRNAs in callus tissue and six (miR158, miR159, miR169, miR393, miR396 and miR408) of the nine miRNAs in leaf tissue showed expression patterns that were similar to those observed with the H-T sequencing data. [score:4]
Furthermore, in the callus tissue, miR399 and three miRNAs in the leaf tissue (miR159, miR396 and miR399) were not differentially expressed between the untreated and treated samples. [score:3]
Tissue differentiation [11] could explain this variation in the expression profile of miR396 in the two tissue types. [score:3]
Experimental studies in Arabidopsis and other plants have shown that abiotic and biotic stresses induce differential expression of a set of miRNAs such as: miR156, miR159, miR165, miR167, miR168, miR169, miR319, miR393, miR395, miR396, miR398, miR399, and miR402 [7, 18- 23]. [score:3]
These results correlated with the expression patterns of miR396 given by the qPCR in the callus tissue and H-T sequencing result obtained in the leaf tissue. [score:3]
[1 to 20 of 13 sentences]
5
[+] score: 42
Ectopic expression of miR396 suppresses GRF target gene expression and alters leaf growth in Arabidopsis. [score:9]
Ectopic expression of miR396 suppresses GRF target gene expression and alters leaf growth in Arabidopsis Physiol. [score:9]
Notably, miRNA396 (ath-miR396a-3p), reported to suppress GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (Liu et al., 2009b; Debernardi et al., 2012) showed a 2.8-fold increase in normalized reads compared to Col-0. The detected general increase of miRNAs resulted from the proportional decrease of highly abundant 21 mers in the AtERI overexpressing plant. [score:5]
Based on the unchanged amount of miR396 (exact sequence) an influence of AtERI overexpression on miRNA396 and subsequent regulation of the GRF transcription factor family can be excluded. [score:4]
Functional specialization of the plant miR396 regulatory network through distinct microRNA-target interactions. [score:4]
Although we did not see a general change in the population of microRNAs in the AtERI overexpressing plant, sequences with similarity to miR396 were analyzed and quantified. [score:3]
Ectopic overexpression of miR396 lead to reduced leaf cell number and altered leaf shape. [score:3]
miR396 was identified as a regulator of the family of GRF transcription factors. [score:2]
Members of the GRF family are regulated by miR396 (Liu et al., 2009b). [score:2]
Therefore it can be speculated that the turnover of miR396 is increased based on increased abundance of AtERI. [score:1]
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6
[+] score: 32
Ectopic expression of miR396 suppresses GRF target gene expression and alters leaf growth in Arabidopsis. [score:9]
A point mutation in the miR319 target site of TCP4 induces miR396 which in turn decreases GRF expression and results in smaller leaves (Figure 8). [score:6]
The TCP family of transcription factors regulates the expression of miR396 and miR319 (Palatnik et al., 2003; Rodriguez et al., 2010). [score:4]
miR396 -targeted AtGRF transcription factors are required for coordination of cell division and differentiation during leaf development in Arabidopsis. [score:4]
Interestingly, overexpression of miR396 in a mutant deficient for GRF1 reduces SAM size (Rodriguez et al., 2010). [score:3]
The miR396 targeted GRFs are also essential for leaf polarity (Wang et al., 2011). [score:3]
miR396 negatively regulates six members of Arabidopsis GRF together with GIF1 (Liu et al., 2009; Figure 8). [score:2]
Control of cell proliferation in Arabidopsis thaliana by microRNA miR396. [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 8 sentences]
7
[+] score: 11
Ectopic expression of miR396 suppresses GRF target gene expression and alters leaf growth in Arabidopsis. [score:9]
Control of cell proliferation in Arabidopsis thaliana by microRNA miR396. [score:1]
MicroRNA396 represses cell proliferation through regulation of the GRF family (Jones-Rhoades and Bartel, 2004; Liu et al., 2009; Rodriguez et al., 2010). [score:1]
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8
[+] score: 10
miR396a itself has been reported to target the GROWTH REGULATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (GRF) family (Jones-Rhoades & Bartel 2004), but increased very slightly in senescing leaves and siliques. [score:4]
miR396a-3p had a larger increase in expression in leaves and a steep decline in siliques during late senescence (Fig.   3b), indicating that this newly annotated miRNA may play a previously unknown role during senescence. [score:3]
miR396a, which increased very slightly in both leaf and silique senescence (Fig.   3b), was recently found to produce an abundant miRNA*, miR396a-3p in certain tissues (Jeong et al. 2013). [score:1]
Interestingly, the miR396a precursor was recently reported to produce an abundant miR star, miR396a-5p (Jeong et al. 2013), which was induced during senescence in leaves and repressed in siliques (Fig.   3b). [score:1]
However, members of the miR156/157 family and miR396a-3p have not been shown to change significantly under nutrient starvation. [score:1]
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9
[+] score: 9
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR159a, ath-MIR162a, ath-MIR162b, ath-MIR166a, ath-MIR166b, ath-MIR166c, ath-MIR166d, ath-MIR166e, ath-MIR166f, ath-MIR166g, ath-MIR169a, ath-MIR171a, ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR319a, ath-MIR319b, osa-MIR162a, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR169a, osa-MIR171a, ath-MIR169b, ath-MIR169c, ath-MIR169d, ath-MIR169e, ath-MIR169f, ath-MIR169g, ath-MIR169h, ath-MIR169i, ath-MIR169j, ath-MIR169k, ath-MIR169l, ath-MIR169m, ath-MIR169n, ath-MIR171b, ath-MIR171c, ath-MIR390a, ath-MIR390b, ath-MIR396b, ath-MIR398a, ath-MIR398b, ath-MIR398c, ath-MIR399a, ath-MIR399b, ath-MIR399c, ath-MIR399d, ath-MIR399e, ath-MIR399f, osa-MIR396a, osa-MIR396b, osa-MIR396c, osa-MIR398a, osa-MIR398b, osa-MIR399a, osa-MIR399b, osa-MIR399c, osa-MIR399d, osa-MIR399e, osa-MIR399f, osa-MIR399g, osa-MIR399h, osa-MIR399i, osa-MIR399j, osa-MIR399k, ath-MIR408, ath-MIR159c, ath-MIR319c, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR159a, osa-MIR159b, osa-MIR159c, osa-MIR159d, osa-MIR159e, osa-MIR159f, osa-MIR319a, osa-MIR319b, osa-MIR162b, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR169b, osa-MIR169c, osa-MIR169d, osa-MIR169e, osa-MIR169f, osa-MIR169g, osa-MIR169h, osa-MIR169i, osa-MIR169j, osa-MIR169k, osa-MIR169l, osa-MIR169m, osa-MIR169n, osa-MIR169o, osa-MIR169p, osa-MIR169q, osa-MIR171b, osa-MIR171c, osa-MIR171d, osa-MIR171e, osa-MIR171f, osa-MIR171g, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR171h, osa-MIR408, osa-MIR171i, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, ath-MIR414, osa-MIR414, osa-MIR390, osa-MIR396e, ptc-MIR156k, ptc-MIR159a, ptc-MIR159b, ptc-MIR159d, ptc-MIR159e, ptc-MIR159c, ptc-MIR162a, ptc-MIR162b, ptc-MIR166a, ptc-MIR166b, ptc-MIR166c, ptc-MIR166d, ptc-MIR166e, ptc-MIR166f, ptc-MIR166g, ptc-MIR166h, ptc-MIR166i, ptc-MIR166j, ptc-MIR166k, ptc-MIR166l, ptc-MIR166m, ptc-MIR166n, ptc-MIR166o, ptc-MIR166p, ptc-MIR166q, ptc-MIR169a, ptc-MIR169aa, ptc-MIR169ab, ptc-MIR169ac, ptc-MIR169ad, ptc-MIR169ae, ptc-MIR169af, ptc-MIR169b, ptc-MIR169c, ptc-MIR169d, ptc-MIR169e, ptc-MIR169f, ptc-MIR169g, ptc-MIR169h, ptc-MIR169i, ptc-MIR169j, ptc-MIR169k, ptc-MIR169l, ptc-MIR169m, ptc-MIR169n, ptc-MIR169o, ptc-MIR169p, ptc-MIR169q, ptc-MIR169r, ptc-MIR169s, ptc-MIR169t, ptc-MIR169u, ptc-MIR169v, ptc-MIR169w, ptc-MIR169x, ptc-MIR169y, ptc-MIR169z, ptc-MIR171a, ptc-MIR171b, ptc-MIR171c, ptc-MIR171d, ptc-MIR171e, ptc-MIR171f, ptc-MIR171g, ptc-MIR171h, ptc-MIR171i, ptc-MIR319a, ptc-MIR319b, ptc-MIR319c, ptc-MIR319d, ptc-MIR319e, ptc-MIR319f, ptc-MIR319g, ptc-MIR319h, ptc-MIR319i, ptc-MIR390a, ptc-MIR390b, ptc-MIR390c, ptc-MIR390d, ptc-MIR396a, ptc-MIR396b, ptc-MIR396c, ptc-MIR396d, ptc-MIR396e, ptc-MIR396f, ptc-MIR396g, ptc-MIR398a, ptc-MIR398b, ptc-MIR398c, ptc-MIR399a, ptc-MIR399b, ptc-MIR399d, ptc-MIR399f, ptc-MIR399g, ptc-MIR399h, ptc-MIR399i, ptc-MIR399j, ptc-MIR399c, ptc-MIR399e, ptc-MIR408, ptc-MIR482a, ptc-MIR171k, osa-MIR169r, ptc-MIR171l, ptc-MIR171m, ptc-MIR171j, ptc-MIR1448, osa-MIR396f, osa-MIR2118a, osa-MIR2118b, osa-MIR2118c, osa-MIR2118d, osa-MIR2118e, osa-MIR2118f, osa-MIR2118g, osa-MIR2118h, osa-MIR2118i, osa-MIR2118j, osa-MIR2118k, osa-MIR2118l, osa-MIR2118m, osa-MIR2118n, osa-MIR2118o, osa-MIR2118p, osa-MIR2118q, osa-MIR2118r, osa-MIR396g, osa-MIR396h, osa-MIR396d, ptc-MIR482d, ptc-MIR169ag, ptc-MIR482b, ptc-MIR482c, pde-MIR159, pde-MIR162, pde-MIR166a, pde-MIR166b, pde-MIR169, pde-MIR171, pde-MIR390, pde-MIR396, pde-MIR482a, pde-MIR482b, pde-MIR482c, pde-MIR482d, pde-MIR946, pde-MIR947, pde-MIR949a, pde-MIR950, pde-MIR951, pde-MIR952a, pde-MIR952b, pde-MIR952c, pde-MIR1311, pde-MIR1312, pde-MIR1313, pde-MIR1314, pde-MIR3701, pde-MIR3704a, pde-MIR3704b, pde-MIR3712
In order to obtain solid evidence to support the existence and expression of conserved miRNAs in P. densata, we examined the expression profiles of 10 mature miRNAs (pde-miR159a, pde-miR166a, pde-miR171a, pde-miR390a, pde-miR396a, pde-miR946, pde-miR950, pde-miR1311, pde-miR1313 and pde-miR1314b) in needles and stems of two-month-old seedlings, using real-time RT-PCR (Figure 4). [score:5]
It includes pde-miR159a, pde-miR169a, pde-miR396a, pde-miR482c, pde-miR482d, pde-miR949a, pde-miR950a, pde-miR952a, pde-miR952b, pde-miR952c, pde-miR1313, pde-miR1314a, pde-miR1448, pde-miR2118a, pde-miR2118b, pde-miR3701, pde-miR3704a, pde-miR3704b and pde-miR3712 (Table 1), of which 17 miRNAs were further validated by subcloning and sequencing except pde-miR396a and pde-miR482c. [score:1]
It includes pde-MIR159, pde-MIR162, pde-MIR166, pde-MIR169, pde-MIR171, pde-MIR390, pde-MIR396 and pde-MIR399. [score:1]
The pre-miRNA sequences of 5 miRNAs, pde-miR162a, pde-miR390a, pde-miR396a, pde-miR482c and pde-miR1314a could not be amplified from total RNAs of two-month-old seedling stems, although we repeated our experiments. [score:1]
For example, the pde-MIR482 family has 4 members, whereas only one exists in 19 miRNA families (pde-MIR159, pde-MIR162, pde-MIR169, pde-MIR171, pde-MIR390, pde-MIR396, pde-MIR783, pde-MIR946, pde-MIR947, pde-MIR950, pde-MIR951, pde-MIR1310, pde-MIR1311, pde-MIR1312, pde-MIR1313, pde-MIR1314, pde-MIR1448, pde-MIR3701 and pde-MIR3712). [score:1]
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10
[+] score: 9
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR163, ath-MIR396b
In plant, a range of differential miRNA targeting preference was observed for mRNAs with differential degree of miRNA-target complementarity 27. miR396 exhibited a strong efficiency in mediating cleavage of its target when the miRNA-target pair is perfectly matched 28. [score:9]
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11
[+] score: 9
Among them, han-miR396 in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was found to be repressed by high temperature, which results in the up-regulation of the putative target HaWRKY6 (Giacomelli et al., 2012). [score:6]
But plants overexpressing miR396-resistant versions of HaWRKY6 were hypersensitive to heat shock, indicating that HaWRKY6 is involved in a fine modulation in response to heat (Giacomelli et al., 2012). [score:3]
[1 to 20 of 2 sentences]
12
[+] score: 7
For instance, our previous work has shown that the miR396 family miRNAs target growth -regulating factor (GRF) genes. [score:4]
Tobacco plants overexpressing Sp-miR396a-5p show increased susceptibility to P. nicotianae infection 38. [score:3]
[1 to 20 of 2 sentences]
13
[+] score: 7
While the expressions of 14 families (miR156/miR157, miR158, miR160, miR162, miR165/miR166, miR168, miR169, miR171, miR390, miR393, miR394, miR396, miR398, and miR399) were dramatically reduced, 3 families (miR159, miR167, and miR172) were up-regulated in CsCl -treated seedlings. [score:6]
miR167, miR168, miR172, miR396, and miR398) were notably increased (Fig 3B, S2 Fig). [score:1]
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14
[+] score: 7
For BR, Bazin et al. have shown that the miRNA miR396—that targets several growth -regulating factor genes (MtGRF) and two bHLH79—is induced by short BR treatment in M. truncatula. [score:4]
Overexpression of miR396 in M. truncatula affects primary root length and reduces arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization but not nodulation [102]. [score:3]
[1 to 20 of 2 sentences]
15
[+] score: 7
Given the presence of miRs targeting transcription factor families such as SPL (miR156/miR157), MYB/TCP (miR159, miR319), ARF (miR160, miR167), AP2 (miR172), and GRF (miR396) there can be no doubt that miRs modulate the expression of many transcription factors during later stages of pollen development. [score:6]
Some miR* instead of, or in addition to the miR were also identified for the miR827, miR396 and miR829 families. [score:1]
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16
[+] score: 6
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR396b
MiRNAs are involved in plant disease resistance to bacteria and miRNA396 has been shown to be upregulated in plants upon flg22 treatment (Li et al., 2010). [score:6]
[1 to 20 of 1 sentences]
17
[+] score: 4
Based on A. thaliana annotation, miRNA target genes were found for several conserved miRNAs in hybrid yellow poplar (Table S4): ARF10 (miR160), CYP96A1 (miR162), NAC (miR164), PHB and DNA -binding factor (miR165/166), NF-YA8 (miR169), SCARECROW transcription factor family protein (miR170/171), SNZ (miR172), MYB (miR319), GRF (miR396), copper ion binding (miR408), SPL11 (miR529) etc. [score:3]
In the 64 predicted conserved miRNAs, 20 miRNA sequences including 9 miRNA families' (miR894, miR156, miR159, miR2118, miR397, miR1511, miR535, miR529 and miR396) average signal intensity were higher than 1000. [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 2 sentences]
18
[+] score: 3
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR156a, ath-MIR156b, ath-MIR156c, ath-MIR156d, ath-MIR156e, ath-MIR156f, ath-MIR166a, ath-MIR166b, ath-MIR166c, ath-MIR166d, ath-MIR166e, ath-MIR166f, ath-MIR166g, ath-MIR169a, ath-MIR171a, ath-MIR169b, ath-MIR169c, ath-MIR169d, ath-MIR169e, ath-MIR169f, ath-MIR169g, ath-MIR169h, ath-MIR169i, ath-MIR169j, ath-MIR169k, ath-MIR169l, ath-MIR169m, ath-MIR169n, ath-MIR171b, ath-MIR171c, ath-MIR395a, ath-MIR395b, ath-MIR395c, ath-MIR395d, ath-MIR395e, ath-MIR395f, ath-MIR396b, ath-MIR399a, ath-MIR408, ath-MIR156g, ath-MIR156h, gma-MIR156d, gma-MIR156e, gma-MIR156c, gma-MIR166a, gma-MIR166b, gma-MIR156a, gma-MIR396a, gma-MIR396b, gma-MIR156b, gma-MIR169a, ath-MIR848, gma-MIR169b, gma-MIR169c, gma-MIR171a, gma-MIR171b, gma-MIR1527, gma-MIR1533, gma-MIR396c, pvu-MIR166a, pvu-MIR399a, gma-MIR396d, gma-MIR156f, gma-MIR169d, gma-MIR171c, gma-MIR169e, gma-MIR156g, gma-MIR396e, gma-MIR156h, gma-MIR156i, gma-MIR166c, gma-MIR166d, gma-MIR166e, gma-MIR166f, gma-MIR166g, gma-MIR166h, gma-MIR169f, gma-MIR169g, gma-MIR171d, gma-MIR171e, gma-MIR171f, gma-MIR171g, gma-MIR408d, ath-MIR5021, gma-MIR171h, gma-MIR171i, gma-MIR169h, gma-MIR169i, gma-MIR396f, gma-MIR396g, gma-MIR171j, gma-MIR395a, gma-MIR395b, gma-MIR395c, gma-MIR408a, gma-MIR408b, gma-MIR408c, gma-MIR156j, gma-MIR156k, gma-MIR156l, gma-MIR156m, gma-MIR156n, gma-MIR156o, gma-MIR166i, gma-MIR166j, gma-MIR169j, gma-MIR169k, gma-MIR169l, gma-MIR169m, gma-MIR169n, gma-MIR171k, gma-MIR396h, gma-MIR396i, gma-MIR171l, ath-MIR156i, ath-MIR156j, gma-MIR399a, gma-MIR156p, gma-MIR171m, gma-MIR171n, gma-MIR156q, gma-MIR171o, gma-MIR169o, gma-MIR171p, gma-MIR169p, gma-MIR156r, gma-MIR396j, gma-MIR171q, gma-MIR156s, gma-MIR169r, gma-MIR169s, gma-MIR396k, gma-MIR166k, gma-MIR156t, gma-MIR171r, gma-MIR169t, gma-MIR171s, gma-MIR166l, gma-MIR171t, gma-MIR171u, gma-MIR395d, gma-MIR395e, gma-MIR395f, gma-MIR395g, gma-MIR166m, gma-MIR169u, gma-MIR156u, gma-MIR156v, gma-MIR156w, gma-MIR156x, gma-MIR156y, gma-MIR156z, gma-MIR156aa, gma-MIR156ab, gma-MIR166n, gma-MIR166o, gma-MIR166p, gma-MIR166q, gma-MIR166r, gma-MIR166s, gma-MIR166t, gma-MIR166u, gma-MIR169v, gma-MIR395h, gma-MIR395i, gma-MIR395j, gma-MIR395k, gma-MIR395l, gma-MIR395m, gma-MIR169w
In Arabidopsis, it was found that miR396 family targets the tubulin mRNAs [71]. [score:3]
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19
[+] score: 3
Among the 30 miRNA families detected at 2dpi, 10 (miR160, miR161, miR167, miR171, miR172, miR390, miR394, miR396, miR398 and miR408) displayed contrasting expression levels between viruses. [score:3]
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20
[+] score: 3
We quantified miR164a, miR172a and miR396a together with their corresponding pri-miRNAs in the wild type, hyl1-2, and hyl1-2 mutants transformed with the different constructs (Figure 1D). [score:1]
MiR164a, miR172a and miR396a levels were concurrently determined in each sample by stem-loop RT-qPCR [21]. [score:1]
The graph shows the ratio of pri-miR164a/miR164a (black), pri-miR172a/miRNA172a (gray) and pri-miRNA396a/miRNA396a (white) levels for each genotype. [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 3 sentences]
21
[+] score: 3
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR156a, ath-MIR156b, ath-MIR156c, ath-MIR156d, ath-MIR156e, ath-MIR156f, ath-MIR159a, ath-MIR160a, ath-MIR160b, ath-MIR160c, ath-MIR164a, ath-MIR164b, ath-MIR166a, ath-MIR166b, ath-MIR166c, ath-MIR166d, ath-MIR166e, ath-MIR166f, ath-MIR166g, ath-MIR167a, ath-MIR167b, ath-MIR168a, ath-MIR168b, ath-MIR171a, ath-MIR172a, ath-MIR172b, ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR319a, osa-MIR156a, osa-MIR156b, osa-MIR156c, osa-MIR156d, osa-MIR156e, osa-MIR156f, osa-MIR156g, osa-MIR156h, osa-MIR156i, osa-MIR156j, osa-MIR160a, osa-MIR160b, osa-MIR160c, osa-MIR160d, osa-MIR164a, osa-MIR164b, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR167a, osa-MIR167b, osa-MIR167c, osa-MIR171a, ath-MIR167d, ath-MIR172c, ath-MIR172d, ath-MIR393a, ath-MIR393b, ath-MIR396b, ath-MIR398a, osa-MIR393a, osa-MIR396a, osa-MIR396b, osa-MIR396c, osa-MIR398a, ath-MIR156g, ath-MIR156h, ath-MIR159c, ath-MIR164c, ath-MIR167c, ath-MIR172e, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR156l, osa-MIR159a, osa-MIR159b, osa-MIR159c, osa-MIR159d, osa-MIR159e, osa-MIR159f, osa-MIR319a, osa-MIR160e, osa-MIR160f, osa-MIR164c, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR167d, osa-MIR167e, osa-MIR167f, osa-MIR167g, osa-MIR167h, osa-MIR167i, osa-MIR168a, osa-MIR168b, osa-MIR172a, osa-MIR172b, osa-MIR172c, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR393b, osa-MIR172d, osa-MIR167j, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, osa-MIR437, osa-MIR396e, osa-MIR444a, osa-MIR528, osa-MIR531a, osa-MIR1425, osa-MIR444b, osa-MIR444c, osa-MIR444d, osa-MIR444e, osa-MIR444f, osa-MIR531b, osa-MIR1862a, osa-MIR1862b, osa-MIR1862c, osa-MIR1873, osa-MIR1862d, osa-MIR1862e, osa-MIR396f, osa-MIR396g, osa-MIR396h, osa-MIR396d, osa-MIR1862f, osa-MIR1862g, ath-MIR5021, osa-MIR5072, osa-MIR5077, ath-MIR156i, ath-MIR156j, osa-MIR531c
2, miR396-3p. [score:1]
Monocot specific miRNAs such as miR437, miR444, miR396 were reported in monocot plant species like rice, maize, sorghum, and sugarcane [50]. [score:1]
In our study, we found the presence of only miR396 and miR444 but not miR437. [score:1]
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22
[+] score: 2
The abundance of some miRNA (miR172 and miR397) induced by cold stresses increased in the OE lines but many other miRNAs (miR166, miR393, miR396 and miR408) induced by cold were unaltered [36]. [score:1]
Similarly, miRNAs responsive to bacterial (miR160, miR167, miR393, miR396, miR398 and miR825) and viral infections (miR156 and miR164) were not altered in the OE lines [33- 35]. [score:1]
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[+] score: 1
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR156a, ath-MIR156b, ath-MIR156c, ath-MIR156d, ath-MIR156e, ath-MIR156f, ath-MIR157a, ath-MIR157b, ath-MIR157c, ath-MIR157d, ath-MIR159a, ath-MIR160a, ath-MIR160b, ath-MIR160c, ath-MIR165a, ath-MIR165b, ath-MIR166a, ath-MIR166b, ath-MIR166c, ath-MIR166d, ath-MIR166e, ath-MIR166f, ath-MIR166g, ath-MIR167a, ath-MIR167b, ath-MIR169a, ath-MIR172a, ath-MIR172b, ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR319a, ath-MIR319b, osa-MIR156a, osa-MIR156b, osa-MIR156c, osa-MIR156d, osa-MIR156e, osa-MIR156f, osa-MIR156g, osa-MIR156h, osa-MIR156i, osa-MIR156j, osa-MIR160a, osa-MIR160b, osa-MIR160c, osa-MIR160d, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR167a, osa-MIR167b, osa-MIR167c, osa-MIR169a, ath-MIR167d, ath-MIR169b, ath-MIR169c, ath-MIR169d, ath-MIR169e, ath-MIR169f, ath-MIR169g, ath-MIR169h, ath-MIR169i, ath-MIR169j, ath-MIR169k, ath-MIR169l, ath-MIR169m, ath-MIR169n, ath-MIR172c, ath-MIR172d, ath-MIR394a, ath-MIR394b, ath-MIR396b, osa-MIR394, osa-MIR396a, osa-MIR396b, osa-MIR396c, ath-MIR403, ath-MIR408, ath-MIR156g, ath-MIR156h, ath-MIR159c, ath-MIR319c, ath-MIR167c, ath-MIR172e, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR156l, osa-MIR159a, osa-MIR159b, osa-MIR159c, osa-MIR159d, osa-MIR159e, osa-MIR159f, osa-MIR319a, osa-MIR319b, osa-MIR160e, osa-MIR160f, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR167d, osa-MIR167e, osa-MIR167f, osa-MIR167g, osa-MIR167h, osa-MIR167i, osa-MIR169b, osa-MIR169c, osa-MIR169d, osa-MIR169e, osa-MIR169f, osa-MIR169g, osa-MIR169h, osa-MIR169i, osa-MIR169j, osa-MIR169k, osa-MIR169l, osa-MIR169m, osa-MIR169n, osa-MIR169o, osa-MIR169p, osa-MIR169q, osa-MIR172a, osa-MIR172b, osa-MIR172c, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR408, osa-MIR172d, osa-MIR167j, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, ath-MIR414, osa-MIR414, osa-MIR396e, ath-MIR856, ath-MIR858a, osa-MIR169r, osa-MIR396f, ath-MIR2111a, ath-MIR2111b, osa-MIR396g, osa-MIR396h, osa-MIR396d, ath-MIR858b, ath-MIR156i, ath-MIR156j
miR156, miR159, miR167, miR319, miR396 and miR172 possessed 5, 8, 10, 8, 7 and 6 members respectively whereas other miRNA families such as miR157, miR160, miR169, miR858, miR894, miR2111 etc. [score:1]
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[+] score: 1
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR396b
Control of cell proliferation in Arabidopsis thaliana by microRNA miR396. [score:1]
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25
[+] score: 1
The newly identified genes were members of diverse gene families such as major facilitator super family (MFS) transporters [AT1G08900, AT1G30560, AT1G33440, AT1G72140, AT1G80530, AT2G26690, AT2G34355, AT3G20460, AT3G45680, AT3G47960, AT4G19450, STP8 (AT5G26250), AT5G27350, and AT5G62680], MATE efflux transporters (AT1G71140, AT5G17700, AT5G19700, and AT5G38030), microRNA genes [MIR156b (AT4G30972), MIR161 (AT1G48267), MIR162b (AT5G23065), MIR164 (AT5G01747), MIR167c (AT3G04765), MIR168b (AT5G45307), MIR396a (AT2G10606), MIR402 (AT1G77235), MIR777a (AT1G70645), and MIR848a (AT5G13887)], various transcription factors (MYB, NAC domain, WRKY, etc. [score:1]
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26
[+] score: 1
Furthermore, we found that miR408 and miR396a are involved in leaf senescence (Additional file 2: Table S3), it was consistent with Thatcher’s deep sequence results [54]. [score:1]
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[+] score: 1
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR156a, ath-MIR156b, ath-MIR156c, ath-MIR156d, ath-MIR156e, ath-MIR156f, ath-MIR159a, ath-MIR160a, ath-MIR160b, ath-MIR160c, ath-MIR162a, ath-MIR162b, ath-MIR164a, ath-MIR164b, ath-MIR166a, ath-MIR166b, ath-MIR166c, ath-MIR166d, ath-MIR166e, ath-MIR166f, ath-MIR166g, ath-MIR167a, ath-MIR167b, ath-MIR168a, ath-MIR168b, ath-MIR169a, ath-MIR172a, ath-MIR172b, ath-MIR159b, osa-MIR156a, osa-MIR156b, osa-MIR156c, osa-MIR156d, osa-MIR156e, osa-MIR156f, osa-MIR156g, osa-MIR156h, osa-MIR156i, osa-MIR156j, osa-MIR160a, osa-MIR160b, osa-MIR160c, osa-MIR160d, osa-MIR162a, osa-MIR164a, osa-MIR164b, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR167a, osa-MIR167b, osa-MIR167c, osa-MIR169a, ath-MIR167d, ath-MIR169b, ath-MIR169c, ath-MIR169d, ath-MIR169e, ath-MIR169f, ath-MIR169g, ath-MIR169h, ath-MIR169i, ath-MIR169j, ath-MIR169k, ath-MIR169l, ath-MIR169m, ath-MIR169n, ath-MIR172c, ath-MIR172d, ath-MIR395a, ath-MIR395b, ath-MIR395c, ath-MIR395d, ath-MIR395e, ath-MIR395f, ath-MIR396b, ath-MIR399a, ath-MIR399b, ath-MIR399c, ath-MIR399d, ath-MIR399e, ath-MIR399f, osa-MIR395b, osa-MIR395d, osa-MIR395e, osa-MIR395g, osa-MIR395h, osa-MIR395i, osa-MIR395j, osa-MIR395k, osa-MIR395l, osa-MIR395s, osa-MIR395t, osa-MIR395c, osa-MIR395a, osa-MIR395f, osa-MIR395u, osa-MIR396a, osa-MIR396b, osa-MIR396c, osa-MIR399a, osa-MIR399b, osa-MIR399c, osa-MIR399d, osa-MIR399e, osa-MIR399f, osa-MIR399g, osa-MIR399h, osa-MIR399i, osa-MIR399j, osa-MIR399k, ath-MIR408, ath-MIR156g, ath-MIR156h, ath-MIR159c, ath-MIR164c, ath-MIR167c, ath-MIR172e, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR156l, osa-MIR159a, osa-MIR159b, osa-MIR159c, osa-MIR159d, osa-MIR159e, osa-MIR159f, osa-MIR160e, osa-MIR160f, osa-MIR162b, osa-MIR164c, osa-MIR164d, osa-MIR164e, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR167d, osa-MIR167e, osa-MIR167f, osa-MIR167g, osa-MIR167h, osa-MIR167i, osa-MIR168a, osa-MIR168b, osa-MIR169b, osa-MIR169c, osa-MIR169d, osa-MIR169e, osa-MIR169f, osa-MIR169g, osa-MIR169h, osa-MIR169i, osa-MIR169j, osa-MIR169k, osa-MIR169l, osa-MIR169m, osa-MIR169n, osa-MIR169o, osa-MIR169p, osa-MIR169q, osa-MIR172a, osa-MIR172b, osa-MIR172c, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR171h, osa-MIR408, osa-MIR172d, osa-MIR167j, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, osa-MIR164f, zma-MIR156d, zma-MIR156f, zma-MIR156g, zma-MIR156b, zma-MIR156c, zma-MIR156e, zma-MIR156a, zma-MIR156h, zma-MIR156i, zma-MIR160a, zma-MIR160c, zma-MIR160d, zma-MIR160b, zma-MIR164a, zma-MIR164d, zma-MIR164b, zma-MIR164c, zma-MIR169a, zma-MIR169b, zma-MIR167a, zma-MIR167b, zma-MIR167d, zma-MIR167c, zma-MIR160e, zma-MIR166a, zma-MIR162, zma-MIR166h, zma-MIR166e, zma-MIR166i, zma-MIR166f, zma-MIR166g, zma-MIR166b, zma-MIR166c, zma-MIR166d, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, zma-MIR172c, osa-MIR396e, zma-MIR395b, zma-MIR395c, zma-MIR395a, zma-MIR396b, zma-MIR396a, zma-MIR399a, zma-MIR399c, zma-MIR399b, zma-MIR399d, zma-MIR399e, zma-MIR399f, zma-MIR156j, zma-MIR159a, zma-MIR159b, zma-MIR159c, zma-MIR159d, zma-MIR166k, zma-MIR166j, zma-MIR167e, zma-MIR167f, zma-MIR167g, zma-MIR167h, zma-MIR167i, zma-MIR168a, zma-MIR168b, zma-MIR169c, zma-MIR169f, zma-MIR169g, zma-MIR169h, zma-MIR169i, zma-MIR169k, zma-MIR169j, zma-MIR169d, zma-MIR169e, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR166l, zma-MIR166m, zma-MIR171h, zma-MIR408a, zma-MIR156k, zma-MIR160f, osa-MIR529a, osa-MIR395m, osa-MIR395n, osa-MIR395o, osa-MIR395p, osa-MIR395q, osa-MIR395v, osa-MIR395w, osa-MIR395r, osa-MIR529b, osa-MIR169r, osa-MIR396f, zma-MIR396c, zma-MIR396d, osa-MIR2118a, osa-MIR2118b, osa-MIR2118c, osa-MIR2118d, osa-MIR2118e, osa-MIR2118f, osa-MIR2118g, osa-MIR2118h, osa-MIR2118i, osa-MIR2118j, osa-MIR2118k, osa-MIR2118l, osa-MIR2118m, osa-MIR2118n, osa-MIR2118o, osa-MIR2118p, osa-MIR2118q, osa-MIR2118r, osa-MIR2275a, osa-MIR2275b, zma-MIR2118a, zma-MIR2118b, zma-MIR2118c, zma-MIR2118d, zma-MIR2118e, zma-MIR2118f, zma-MIR2118g, zma-MIR2275a, zma-MIR2275b, zma-MIR2275c, zma-MIR2275d, osa-MIR396g, osa-MIR396h, osa-MIR396d, zma-MIR156l, zma-MIR159e, zma-MIR159f, zma-MIR159g, zma-MIR159h, zma-MIR159i, zma-MIR159j, zma-MIR159k, zma-MIR160g, zma-MIR164e, zma-MIR164f, zma-MIR164g, zma-MIR164h, zma-MIR166n, zma-MIR167j, zma-MIR169l, zma-MIR169m, zma-MIR169n, zma-MIR169o, zma-MIR169p, zma-MIR169q, zma-MIR169r, zma-MIR395d, zma-MIR395e, zma-MIR395f, zma-MIR395g, zma-MIR395h, zma-MIR395i, zma-MIR395j, zma-MIR395k, zma-MIR395l, zma-MIR395m, zma-MIR395n, zma-MIR395o, zma-MIR395p, zma-MIR396e, zma-MIR396f, zma-MIR396g, zma-MIR396h, zma-MIR399g, zma-MIR399h, zma-MIR399i, zma-MIR399j, zma-MIR408b, zma-MIR529, osa-MIR395x, osa-MIR395y, osa-MIR2275c, osa-MIR2275d, ath-MIR156i, ath-MIR156j
Of these, 45 miRNAs aligned with 59 members of 21 maize miRNA families, while the others corresponded to members of miRNA families from three other plant species, including rice (osa-miR156/162/164/168/396/529) Arabidopsis (ath-miR156/164/167) and sorghum (sbi-miR396). [score:1]
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[+] score: 1
In addition, loss-of-function of rice miR396 brought out multiple inflorescence architectures and increased grain size and yield, partly due to the altering of plant hormone homeostasis, such as auxin and brassinosteroid (BR) [15, 16]. [score:1]
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[+] score: 1
Liu et al [7] identified 14 miRNAs induced by high-salinity, drought and low temperature in Arabidopsis thaliana on a microarray -based analysis, among which miR168, miR171 and miR396 responded to all three stresses. [score:1]
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