miRBase entry: hsa-mir-221

Stem-loop hsa-mir-221

Homo sapiens hsa-mir-221 precursor miRNA
Gene family
MIPF0000051; mir-221

Caution, this is an AI generated summary based on literature. This may have errors. ?

MIR221 is a microRNA that has been studied in various contexts [PMC7318537]. Annexin V analysis showed significantly more apoptotic cells among cells transfected with the MIR221 inhibitor than among those transfected with the MIR221 mimics [PMC7318537]. In LX2 cells, the overexpression of MIR221 mimics resulted in the aggregation of P62, indicating autolysosome dysfunction [PMC8436230]. The effects of GATA4-Exo, the MIR221 inhibitor, and PTEN deletion on p-Akt and c-Cas-3 expression were tested after hypoxia stimulation [PMC7318537]. In a study analyzing microRNAs in hyperlipidemia-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity, and type II diabetes (T2DM), it was found that both miR155 and MIR221 were significantly modulated in all four diseases [PMC7604447]. Several miRNAs, including MIR21, MIR221, MIR222, MIR26, and MIR19 have been shown to function as oncomiRs by targeting PTEN expression and promoting cancer cell growth [PMC4389881]. The expression level of MIR221 was normalized to U6 RNA [PMC8327461]. Additionally, aberrant expression of miRNAs such as miR34, miR36, miR21, miR203 was observed in breast cancer along with upregulation of both MIR221 and MIR222. This upregulation correlated with downregulated p53 gene profile and activation of oncogenic pathways such as PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling [PMC8071157].

Literature search
572 open access papers mention hsa-mir-221
(4115 sentences)


1352665 reads, 5088 reads per million, 157 experiments

-u     ----       cugg   a    -       U         AUUU    -   c 
  gaaca    uccaggu    ggc ugaA CCUGGCA ACAAUGUAG    cugu guu g
  |||||    |||||||    ||| |||| ||||||| |||||||||    |||| ||| u
  cuugu    aggucca    ucg aCUU GGGUCGU UGUUACAUC    GAca cgg u
cu     acaa       ----   g    U       C         ----    a   a 

Annotation confidence High
Do you think this miRNA is real?
This human miRNA was predicted by computational methods using conservation with mouse and Fugu rubripes sequences [1]. Expression of the excised miR has been validated in zebrafish, and later validated in human HL-60 leukemia cells [2].

Genome context
chrX: 45746157-45746266 [-]
Clustered miRNAs
1 other miRNA is < 10 kb from hsa-mir-221
Name Accession Chromosome Start End Strand Confidence

Disease association
hsa-mir-221 is associated with one or more human diseases in the Human microRNA Disease Database
Disease Description Category PubMed ID

Database links

Mature hsa-miR-221-5p

Accession MIMAT0004568
Description Homo sapiens hsa-miR-221-5p mature miRNA
Evidence experimental
cloned [3]
Database links
Predicted targets

Mature hsa-miR-221-3p

Accession MIMAT0000278
Description Homo sapiens hsa-miR-221-3p mature miRNA
Evidence experimental
cloned [2-4], Illumina [5]
Database links
Predicted targets


  1. PubMed ID: 15325244
    Altered expression profiles of microRNAs during TPA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells
    "Kasashima K, Nakamura Y, Kozu T"
    "Biochem Biophys Res Commun (2004) 322:403-410

  2. PubMed ID: 17604727
    A mammalian microRNA expression atlas based on small RNA library sequencing
    "Landgraf P, Rusu M, Sheridan R, Sewer A, Iovino N, Aravin A, Pfeffer S, Rice A, Kamphorst AO, Landthaler M, Lin C, Socci ND, Hermida L, Fulci V, Chiaretti S, Foa R, Schliwka J, Fuchs U, Novosel A, Muller RU, Schermer B, Bissels U, Inman J, Phan Q, Chien M"
    "Cell (2007) 129:1401-1414

  3. PubMed ID: 17616659
    Patterns of known and novel small RNAs in human cervical cancer
    "Lui WO, Pourmand N, Patterson BK, Fire A"
    "Cancer Res (2007) 67:6031-6043

  4. PubMed ID: 20158877
    Analysis of deep sequencing microRNA expression profile from human embryonic stem cells derived mesenchymal stem cells reveals possible role of let-7 microRNA family in downstream targeting of hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha
    Koh W, Sheng CT, Tan B, Lee QY, Kuznetsov V, Kiang LS, Tanavde V
    BMC Genomics (2010) 11:S6

  5. PubMed ID: 12624257
    Vertebrate microRNA genes
    "Lim LP, Glasner ME, Yekta S, Burge CB, Bartel DP"
    "Science (2003) 299:1540